Introduction of Cao Dou Kou:Katsumada Galangal Seed or Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Katsumada Galangal Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Alpinia katsumadai Hayata., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Katsumada Galangal Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai(Katsumada Galangal Seed).

several light brownish dried herb fruits of Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai Pin Yin Name: Cǎo Dòu Kòu.
 English Name: Katsumada Galangal Seed.
 Latin Name: Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai is the dried seed of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, used to dry dampness, move Qi, and warm the middle for relieving gastralgia, vomiting, and diarrhea due to accumulation of cold-damp or Qi stagnation in the spleen and stomach. The herb is commonly known as Katsumade Galangal Seed, Seed of Katsumada Galangal, Cǎo Dòu Kòu.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai (Katsumada Galangal Seed) as the dried seed of the species (1). Alpinia katsumadai Hayata., it is a plant of the Amomum genus, the Zingiberaceae family (ginger family), the Zingiberales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Alpinia katsumadai Hayata.

 plants of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata grow in a field Botanical description: Alpinia katsumadai Hayata is also known as Languas katsumadai (Hayata) Merr., commonly known as Cǎo Dòu Kòu. A perennial cespitose herb, the plant grows up to 1.5~3 meters tall. The petiole is 1.5~2 cm long; leaf blades are narrowly elliptic or linear-lanceolate, 50~65 cm long, 6~9 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is attenuated, has marginal seta (tricholoma), both surfaces are glabrous, or the undersurface is sparsely covered by hirsute (coarse hairs); paraphyll (ligule) is oval (egg-shaped), 5~8 mm long, outside is covered with coarse hairs.

 shrubs of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata grow in a field Racemes are apical (terminal), upright, 20~30 cm long, rachides (floral axis) are densely covered by coarse hairs, small pedicel is about 3 mm long, bracteoles are cream white (milky white), broadly elliptical, about 3.5 cm long, the apex is obtuse, the base is connate; the calyx is campanulate (bell-shaped), white, 1.5~2.5 cm long, the apex is irregularly 3-crenate, one side is deeply partite, outside is piliferous; corolla is white, corolla tube is about 8 mm long, 3 lobes, oblong, upper lobes are larger, about 3.5 cm long, about 3.0 cm wide, the apex is 2-lobed, the margin is incised, the anterior part has red or reddish black stripes, the rear part has lavender blush (pale violet-red) spots; lateral staminodes are lanceolate, 4 mm long or sometimes absent; 1 stamen, 2.2~2.5 cm long, anther is elliptic, the back surface of the septum is covered by glandular hairs, the filament is flat, about 1.5 cm long; the ovary is oval (egg-shaped), inferior, densely covered with pale yellow silky hairs.

 green unmature fruits of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata grow on branch tip Capsularfruit is orbicular, about 3 cm in diameter, outside is covered by coarse hairs, and turns yellow when the fruit is mature. Its flowering period is from April to June, and the fruiting period is from June to August.

 Ecological environment: Alpinia katsumadai Hayata grows in hilly areas and mountainous regions, open forests, gulches and gullies, riversides and moist places at the forest edge. The plant is distributed in the Zhujiang River area, Hainan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Alpinia katsumadai prefers a warm and humid climate and semi-shaded environment. It is appropriate to choose fields in a sparse forest with deep soil layers, and fertile and loose loam for cultivation. Seeds and ramets are used for propagation.

 many brownish dried seed ball of Katsumada Galangal Seed are piled together Characters of herbs: The herb is a seed mass (seed ball), subglobular (near-spherical) or elliptic, it has 3 conspicuous blunt ribs and 3 shallow grooves, 1.5~3 cm long, and 1.5~3 cm in diameter; the surface is taupe brown (grayish brown) or yellowish-brown; there is a yellowish-white or pale brown septum in the middle, which divides the seed ball into three loculi, each cell contains 22~90~110 seeds, which are tightly adhered, uneasy to disperse, and slightly smooth. Seeds are an oval polyhedron, 3~5 mm long, and 2.5~3 mm in diameter, the back surface is slightly raised, there is a round-nest-shaped hilum at the thicker end, chalaza is on the emarginate (slightly concave) central part at the flat end, a longitudinal groove on the ventral surface, a pale brown raphe grows along the longitudinal groove from the hilum to the chalaza and a longitudinal groove along the chalaza to the back surface, the end of the groove not reaching the hilum. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is cream white. The herb has an aromatic fragrance, and it tastes pungent, spicy, and slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is big, full and has a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacterium dyseioteriae and Escherichia coli; ②.excitatory effect on isolated guinea pig intestines.

 Medicinal efficacy: Drying the dampness and invigorate the spleen, warm the stomach and stop vomiting, warm the middle energizer, dispel cold, and promoting the circulation of Qi. It is indicated for internal stagnation of cold and dampness, cold and pain in the heart and abdomen, epigastric and abdominal distention fullness cold and pain, cold and dampness stagnation of the spleen and stomach, distention and fullness and dyspeptic retention, belching and vomiting, vomiting, vomiting and regurgitation, no appetite, diarrhea with undigested food, cold and dampness vomiting and diarrhea, diarrhea, phlegm and fluid retention, abdominal mass, beriberi, scrambling malaria, halitosis (bad breath), etc.

 Administration of Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai (Cǎo Dòu Kòu): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai (Cǎo Dòu Kòu)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~6 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.8~1.5 qian (about 2.4~4.5 grams), or prepare to pill,powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams,better decoct later,or prepared to pill, powder.




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