Introduction of Sha Ren:Spiny Amomum Fruit or Fructus Amomi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon08 Introduction: Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs: a fragrant agent or substance herbs effective for resolving damp, often used in the treatment of damp syndrome marked by anorexia, lassitude, nausea and vomiting, distension in the chest and abdomen, greasy tongue coating and slippery pulse either in cases of febrile diseases or in other miscellaneous diseases.

 
Fructus Amomi(Spiny Amomum Fruit).

Fructus Amomi Pin Yin Name: Shā Rén.
 English Name: Spiny Amomum Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Amomi.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Amomi is the dried ripe fruit of Amomum villosum Lour., Amomum villosum var.xanthioides T.L. Wu et Senjen, or Amomum longiligulare T.L. Wu(family Zingiberaceae), used (1).to resolve dampness for treating damp accumulation in the spleen and stomach, (2).to warm the middle for treating vomiting and diarrhea due to deficiency-cold of the spleen and stomach, and (3).to prevent miscarriage in cases of threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Amomi, Spiny Amomum Fruit, Shā Rén.

 Botanical source: Common famous herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Amomi as from dried mature fruit from the Zingiberaceae family plant species (1). Amomum villosum Lour; or (2). Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen; or (3). Amomum longiligulare T.L. Wu., they are plants of the Amomum genus, the Zingiberaceae family, the Zingiberales order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Amomum villosum Lour.


 Amomum villosum Lour:growing plant Botanical description: The Amomum villosum Lour., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family and Amomum genus, it is commonly known as "Amomum villosum", or "Yang Chun Sha", perennial herb, up to 1.5 meters. The rhizomes are cylindrical, traversing, small and articulate, with tubular membranous scales on the nodes, brown. Stems upright. 2 rows of leaves, sessile; leaves narrowly oblong or linear-lanceolate, 14~40 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex acuminate or caudate, base attenuate, entire, smooth on top, Under the hair or off; leaf sheath open, holding the stem; lingual tongue short, light brown.

 Amomum villosum Lour:flowers Flowering stems are drawn from rhizomes, finely pilose, with scaly leaves, pale brown; spikes globose, fruiting; bracts oblong-ovate, smooth membranous; bracteoles tubular, apically 2-lobed, glial; ca. 1.6 cm, apex 3-lobed, lobes close to triangular; corolla tube fine, ca. 1.8 cm, 3-lobed, lobes oblong, white, apex pocket-shaped; lip obovate to spatulate, white, the center has pale yellow and red spots. The apex has irregularities and nicks. The base has claws. The lateral staminodes have small milky bulges. 1 stamens, the anthers are smooth, the septum appendages are cleft, the bilateral lobes are small, the central lobes Large and anti-wound, filaments flat and short; ovary lower, spherical, with fine hair, 3 rooms, ovules per room, slender style, base with 2~3 nectaries, stigma near-spherical.

 Amomum villosum Lour:plants with fruits Capsule, subglobose, not dehiscent, ca. 1.5 cm in diam., stipitate, reddish brown when ripe. The seeds are mostly aromatic. Its flowering period is from March to June, fruiting period is from June to September.

 Amomum villosum Lour:herb Ecological environment: The Amomum villosum Lour., grows in the valley forest, wetlands, or cultivation. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area and other areas of China. This species also grows throughout Southeast Asia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Amomum villosum prefers the tropical and south Asian tropical monsoon rain forest warm and humid climate, not resistant to cold, can withstand short low temperature, freezing to death at -3℃. The average annual temperature in the production area is 19~22℃; rainfall is above 1000 mm, air relative temperature is above 90℃, afraid of drought, avoid waterlogging. Need proper shade, like diffuse light. It is advisable to choose mountain gully forest with intact forest, both sides of streams with long-running water, environment with abundant pollinating insect resources, and better to cultivate on loam and sandy soil with deep, loose, and strong water and fertility preservation, rather than on clay and sandy soil.

 Amomum villosum:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb Fructus Amomi is elliptic or ovoid, with inconspicuous triangles, 1.5~2 cm in length and 1~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is brown, dense spiny protuberance, the top has perianth residue, the base often has fruit pedicel. The pericarp is thin and soft. The seeds are aggregated into clusters with three obtuse edges and a white septum. The clusters are divided into 3 petals with 5 to 26 seeds in each lobe. Seeds are irregular polyhedra, 2~3 mm in diameter; The surface is brownish-red or dark brown, with fine wrinkles, and is covered with light brown membranous aril. It is hard, grayish endosperm. The smell is fragrant and strong, and the taste is spicy and cool, slightly bitter.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-ulcer; ②.inhibiting gastric acid secretion; ③.promoting gastrointestinal movement; ④.anti-platelet agglutination; ⑤.excitatory effect on isolated guinea pig intestines.

 Medicinal efficacy: Resolving dampness and stimulate appetite, regulate Qi, warm the spleen and relieve diarrhea, harmonizing stomach, activate the spleen, Regulating Qi, and miscarriage prevention. It is indicated for turbid damp obstructing in middle-energizer, dampness and Qi stagnation, epigastric distention and not hungry, abdominal pain and Qi distension, deficiency and cold of spleen and stomach, stomach stagnation, dyspeptic retention, poor appetite, vomiting and diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, choking diaphragm, pernicious vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, cold diarrhea, cold dysentery, threatened abortion, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Amomi(Shā Rén): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Amomi(Shā Rén)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams, better add later to decoct(CP), Internally:water decoction, should not decoct for long time,0.5~2 qian(about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~6 grams, add later to decoct, prepare to pill, powder(CHMM).

(2).Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen.


 Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen.:growing plant with fruits Botanical description: The Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family and Amomum genus, it is commonly known as "Amomum villosum Lour.var.xanthioides", "Cocklebur-like Amomum", or "Green Shell Amomum", or "Lv Ke Sha", or "Suo Sha", perennial herb, 1.5~3 meters tall, rooted to the ground. Leaf blade long lanceolate to linear, 20~35 cm long, 3~7 cm wide, smooth on both sides without hair; ligule semicircular, long 0.3-0.5 cm. Spikes elliptic; sepals lanceolate, membranous; bracteate tubular, membranous; flowers white, apically with 3 shallow teeth; corolla tube 1.8 cm, lobes 1.6~2 cm long, white; lip white, The midrib is raised, yellow and reddish purple, the base has 2 purple verrucous patches; the appendix appendages are 3-lobed, bilaterally auriculate; ovary puberulous. When the pods are mature, they are green and the prickles on the skin are relatively flat. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen.:growing plant with fruits Ecological environment: The Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen., grows in a damp place under the forest. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area of China.

 Green Shell Amomum:herb photo Characters of herbs: The external morphology of this variety is very similar to that of the normal one. The difference is that the buds and ligule at the apex of the rhizome of this variety are mostly green, and the fruit turns green when it matures. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting period is from July to September.

(3).Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu.


 Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu.:growing plant with fruits Botanical description: The Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family and Amomum genus, it is commonly known as "Amomum longiligulare", "Longiligulate Amomum Fruit", or "Hai Nan Sha", herbs erect, 1~1.5 meters tall, with creeping rhizomes. Leaf blade linear or linear-lanceolate, 20~30 cm long, 2.5~3 cm wide, apex caudate-acuminate, base tapering, glabrous on both surfaces; petiole ca. 5 mm; leaf blade lanceolate, 2~2 4.5 cm, membranous, glabrous. Peduncles 1~3 cm long, ca. 5 mm long persistent scales; bracts lanceolate, 2~2.5 cm long, brown; bracteoles ca. 2 cm long, enclosing cul-de-sac; flowers are white, calyx tube 2~2.2 cm long, apex 3-toothed; corolla tube slightly longer than calyx, lobes oblong, ca. 1.5 cm, verticillate, ca. 2 cm in length and width, white, yellow tip apex prominent 2-lobed head, midrib uplift, purple; stamens ca. 1 cm, appendages 3-lobed, middle lobe semicircular, lobes suborbicular on both sides.

 Capsule fruit shape ovate, bluntly trigonous, 1.5~2.2 cm long, 0.8~1.2 cm wide, split spurred proboscis, thorn is long but 1 mm; seed purple-brown, light brown, membranous pseudoa. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting period is from June to September.

 Ecological environment: The Amomum longiligulare T.L.Wu., grows in a damp place under the forest. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, it is introduced and planted in Guangdong and Hainan of China.

 Longiligulate Amomum Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The difference from Amomum villosum is that the ligule of this species is extremely long, 2-4.5cm long. The fruit has obvious blunt 3 edges, thick and hard skin, and is easily distinguished by flaky, split soft spines. Its flowering is from April to June, fruiting from June to September.

 The Amomum villosum Lour. var. xanthioides T. L. Wu et Senjen species variants and positive external morphology is very similar, the difference is the point: This variant rhizome apex buds, leaves are mostly green, turns green when ripe. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting period from July to September.

 Amomum longiligulare T. L. Wu, differs from Amomum villosum Lour: This species ligule very long, length 2~4.5 cm. Fruit with apparent 3 blunt edges, peel thick hard, flaky, soft spines split, easily identified. It is flowering is from April to June, fruiting period is from June to September.

 Habitat distribution:  Villosum mainly grows in south area, and other areas of China. It also grows in areas of South Asia area include Thailand, Myanmar, etc.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Sha Ren:Spiny Amomum Fruit or Fructus Amomi.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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