Introduction of Qian Niu Zi:Pharbitis Seed or Semen Pharbitidis.
✵The article gives records of the herb Pharbitis Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy., ②.Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Pharbitis Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed).
Pin Yin Name: Qiān Niú Zǐ.
English Name: Pharbitis Seed.
Latin Name: Semen Pharbitidis.
Property and flavor: cold, bitter, pungent, toxic.
Brief introduction: The herb Semen Pharbitidis is the dried ripe seed of Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy., or Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt., used as a hydragogue for edema and oliguria, and an anthelmintic for ascariasis. The herb is commonly known as Semen Pharbitidis, Pharbitis Seed, Qiān Niú Zǐ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Pharbitidis (Pharbitis Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy., or (2). Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt. They are plants of the Pharbitis Choisy genus, the Convolvulaceae family (morning glory family) of the Tubular order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:
(1).Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy.
Botanical description: Pharbitis nil (L.) Choisy., is commonly known as Qiān Niú or Qiān Niú Huā, or Liě Yè Qiān Niú (means cleft leaf pharbitis), or Gǒu ěr Cǎo (means dog ear herb), Lǎ ba Huā (means trumpet flower). An annual twisted climbing herb. Stem is sinistral, grows over 2 meters long, is covered with anatropous pubescence and mixed with anatropous or explanate long hirsute. Leaves are alternate; Petioles are 2~15 cm long; Leaf blades are broad-ovate or orbicular, deeply 3-parted or shallowly 3-lobed, occasionally 5-lobed, 4~15 cm long, 4.5~14 cm long, the base is cordate, the middle lobe is oblong or oval (egg-shaped), acuminate or cuspidate, lateral lobes are shorter, triangular, rifts are pointed or rounded, the leaf surface is hirtellous (covered with slightly stiff hairs).
Flowers are axillary, single, or 2–3 flowers inserted at the top of peduncle, peduncles are unequal in length, hairy; 2 bracts, linear or foliate (leaf-like); 5 sepals (calyx lobes), subequal (nearly equal length), narrowly lanceolate, outside is hairy; Corolla is funnelform, 5~10 cm long, royal purple (bluish violet) or prunus (violet red), corolla tube is light colored; 5 stamens, not stretch beyond the corolla, filaments are unequal length, the base is slightly broad, hairy; 1 pistil, the ovary is glabrous, 3-loculed, stigma is capitate.
Capsularfruit is subsphaeroidal, 0.8~1.3 cm in diameter, 3 valves cleft. 5~6 seeds, ovate-trigonous, dark brown (black brown) or beige (maize-yellow). Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is from August to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in areas at altitudes of 100~200~1,600 meters above sea level, on hillside thickets, dry valley roadsides, garden side houses, mountain roadsides, or for cultivation. The plant was native to tropical America, this species is now widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions. The plant is also cultivated throughout China, it often grows in wild fields.
Growth characteristics: The adaptability of Pharbitis nil is strong, and the requirement of climate and soil is not strict, but a temperate climate and medium fertile sandy loam soil are appropriate. Its growth is poor at low wet or dry, thin sterile land. The plant is fond of warm-cool, also could bear the heat of summer heat and high temperatures, but is not tolerant of coldness, and fear frost. It prefers loose soil, water resistance, and early dry, salt, and alkali resistance. The suitable temperature for seed germination is 18~23 °C (Celsius, or 64.4~73.4 degrees Fahrenheit), seedlings could grow above 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit) temperature.
Characters of herbs: The seeds are similar to orange segments, slightly trigonous (3 edges), 5~7 mm long, and 3~5 mm wide. The surface is grayish-black (Heichou: black ugly), or pale yellowish-white (Baichou: white ugly), the back surface is arched, the two lateral sides are slightly flat and slightly wrinkled, there is a shallow longitudinal groove in the middle of the back surface, and the lower end of the ventral ridge line is a kind of quasi-circular light-colored hilum. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, pale yellow or yellowish-green folded cotyledons are visible in the cross-section. After it is soaked in water, the seed coat turns rimous, with obvious mucus. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes pungent, bitter, and benumbing. The herb of better grade has full grains, and no impurities such as fruit peel, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Water drainage and relaxing the bowels, alleviate water retention to purge constipation, eliminate phlegm and eliminate retained fluid, down bear Qi, removing food retention and kill parasites, kill parasites and attack accumulation. It is indicated for edema, edema and swelling fullness, ascites, obstruction of urine and stool, constipation, phlegm and retained fluid, accumulation, Qi reverse and asthma cough, dyspneal fullness, sputum obstruction and cough, phlegm and retained fluid, beriberi, lumbago, scrotal swelling, ulcer swelling poison, hemorrhoid and stool poison, malnutrition due to parasitic infestation, dyspeptic retention, parasitic infestation and abdominal pain, ascariasis, tapeworm disease, etc.
Administration of Semen Pharbitidis (Qiān Niú Zǐ):
Administration Guide of Semen Pharbitidis (Qiān Niú Zǐ)
①.Internally:3~6 grams; ②.Internally:prepare to pill, powder, 1~3 fen (about 0.3~0.9 grams);water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams,or prepare to pill,powder, 0.3~1 grams each time, 2~3 times daily.Fried herb has milder property than raw herb.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should forbidden using the herb Semen Pharbitidis during pregnancy, should not combine with croton, croton cream.
(2).Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt.
Botanical description: Pharbitis purpurea (L.) Voigt., is commonly known as Yuán Yè Qiān Niú (means round leaf pharbitis), or Máo Qiān Niú (means hairy pharbitis), or Zǐ Huā Qiān Niú (purple flower pharbitis). An annual twisted climbing herb. The stem is covered with anatropous pubescence and mixed with anatropous or explanate long hirsute. Leaves are alternate; Leaf blades are roundish cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 4~18 cm long, 3.5~16.5 cm wide, the base is rounded, cordate, tip is sharp-pointed, cuspidate or acuminate, usually entire, occasionally 3-lobed, both surfaces are sparsely or densely covered with appressed bristles; Petioles are 2~12 cm long, covered with hairs same as hairs on stems.
Flowers are axillary, single, or 2–5 flowers inserted at the top of the peduncle, peduncles are shorter than petioles or nearly equal length, 4~12 cm long, hairs are same as hairs on stems; bracts are linear, 6~7 mm long, covered with explanate long hirsute; pedicel (flower stalk) is 1.2~1.5 cm long, covered with anatropous pubescence and long hirsute; sepals (calyx lobes) are nearly equal length, 1.1~1.6 cm long, out 3 sepals are oblong oval, acuminate, inside 2 sepals are linear-lanceolate, outside are both covered with unfolding hirsute, denser on the base; Corolla is funnelform, 4~6 cm long, prunus (violet red), red or white, corolla tube is usually white, the internal surface of lobes is dark color, the external surface is faint colour; stamen and style hide inside; stamens are unequal length, the base of filaments is pubescent; the ovary is glabrous, 3-loculed, each cell contains 2 ovules, stigma is capitate; floral disc (flower disc) is ringlike.
Capsularfruit is subsphaeroidal, 9~10 mm in diameter, 3 valves cleft. Seeds are ovate-trigonous, about 5 mm long, dark brown (black brown) or beige (maize-yellow), and covered with very short squarrose hairs.
The shape of the leaves is similar to that of Pharbitis nil, the main differences are: the leaves are round cordate or broadly ovate cordate, 4~18 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, usually entire. Flowers are axillary, single or 2~5 flowers cluster and form umbellate cymes, sepals are ovate-lanceolate.
Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grows wild on flat ground, in fields, on roadsides, beside houses, or in valleys, up to the area at altitudes of 2,800 meters above sea level. This species is native to the tropical America continent, widely introduced and cultivated in other regions of the earth village, and it is already a naturalized plant species.
Characters of herbs: Capsularfruit is subsphaeroidal, 9~10 mm in diameter, 3 valves cleft. Seeds are ovate-trigonous, about 5 mm long, dark brown (black brown) or beige (maize-yellow), and covered with extremely short squarrose hairs.
Black Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb Black Pharbitis Seed is the pharbitis seed with its surface colored grayish black.
✵The Black Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Hēi Chǒu (means black ugly), Hēi Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis (Pharbitis Seed)".
White Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb White Pharbitis Seed is the pharbitis seed with its surface colored pale yellowish.
✵The White Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Bái Chǒu (means white ugly), Bái Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis (Pharbitis Seed)".
Black and White Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb Black and White Pharbitis Seed is the black and white pharbitis seeds mixed in equal quantities.
✵The Black and White Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Hēi Bái Chǒu (means black ugly and white ugly), Hēi Bái Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis (Pharbitis Seed)".
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1.Introduction of Qian Niu Zi:Pharbitis Seed or Semen Pharbitidis.