Introduction of Qian Niu Zi:Pharbitis Seed or Semen Pharbitidis.
✵The article gives records of the herb Pharbitis Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Pharbitis nil(L.) Choisy., ②.Pharbitis purpurea(L.) Voigt., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Pharbitis Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed).
Pin Yin Name: Qiān Niú Zǐ.
English Name: Pharbitis Seed.
Latin Name: Semen Pharbitidis.
Property and flavor: cold, bitter, pungent, toxic.
Brief introduction: The herb Semen Pharbitidis is the dried ripe seed of Pharbitis nil(L.) Choisy, or Pharbitis purpurea(L.) Voigt(family Convolvulaceae), used as a hydragogue for edema and oliguria, and an anthelmintic for ascariasis. The herb is commonly known as Semen Pharbitidis, Pharbitis Seed, Qiān Niú Zǐ.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed) as the dried ripe seed of the species (1). Pharbitis nil(L.) Choisy., or (2). Pharbitis purpurea(L.) Voigt. They are plants of the Pharbitis Choisy genus, the Convolvulaceae family of the Tubular order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Pharbitis nil(L.) Choisy.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Liě Yè Qiān Niú(literally it means cleft leaf pharbitis). Spiralaceae annual climbing herbs, it is distributed in most areas of China, it was originated in tropical America and Australia, beautiful flowers, can be cultivated for ornamental uses. Leaves are cordate, alternate; Petiole length 2~15 cm; Leaf blade broadly ovate or suborbicular, deep or shallow 3-lobed, occasionally 5-lobed, base cordate, middle lobed oblong or ovoid, acuminate or cusp, lateral lobes shorter, triangular, lobes acute or rounded, leaf surface slightly stiffly pilose. Flowers axillary, single or 2-3 inserted at apex of peduncle, peduncle unequal in length, hairy; 2 bracts, linear or foliate; 5 sepals, subequal, narrowly lanceolate, outside hairy; Corolla funnelform, 5~10 cm long, bluish-purple or purplish red, corolla tube pale; 5 stamens, not extending outside corolla, filaments unequal, base slightly broad, hairy; 1 pistil, ovary glabrous, 3 locules, stigma capitate; Capsule subglobose, 0.8~1.3 cm in diameter, 3-valved. 5~6 seeds, ovoid triangular prism, dark brown or beige, its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from August to October.
Compliance is strong, sunny enough, can withstand half shade. The plant is fond of warm-cool, also could bear the heat of summer heat high temperature, but do not bear cold, fear frost. It prefers loose soil, water-resistance, and early dry, salt and alkali resistance. The suitable temperature for seed germination is 18~23 ℃, seedlings could grow above 10℃ temperature.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in areas with an altitude of 100~200~1,600 meters above sea level, on hillside thickets, dry valley roadside, garden side house, mountain roadside, or for cultivation. The plant is cultivated throughout China, it often grows in wild fields. The plant was native to tropical America, this species is now widely planted in tropical and subtropical regions.
Growth characteristics: The adaptability of Pharbitis nil is strong, and the requirement of climate and soil is not strict, but it is suitable for temperate climate and medium fertile sandy loam soil. Poor growth at low wet or dry thin sterile land.
Characters of herbs: The seeds are like orange petals, slightly 3-sided, 5~7 mm long and 3~5 mm wide. The surface is grayish-black(Heichou:black ugly), or pale yellowish-white(Baichou:white ugly), the dorsal surface is arched, the two sides are slightly flat and slightly wrinkled, there is a shallow longitudinal groove in the middle of the undersurface, and the lower end of the ventral ridge line is a kind of round light-colored hilum. The texture of the herb is hard, light yellow or yellow-green folded cotyledons can be seen in cross-section. After soaking in water, the seed coat is cracked, with obvious mucus, the herb has a slight odor, it tastes pungent, bitter and tingling. The herb of better grade has full granules, no impurities such as fruit peel, etc.
Medicinal efficacy: Water drainage and relaxing the bowels, alleviate water retention to purge constipation, eliminate phlegm and eliminate retained fluid, down bear Qi, removing food retention and kill parasites, kill parasites and attack accumulation. It is indicated for edema, edema and swelling fullness, ascites, obstruction of urine and stool, constipation, phlegm and retained fluid, accumulation, Qi reverse and asthma cough, dyspneal fullness, sputum obstruction and cough, phlegm and retained fluid, beriberi, lumbago, scrotal swelling, ulcer swelling poison, hemorrhoid and stool poison, malnutrition due to parasitic infestation, dyspeptic retention, parasitic infestation and abdominal pain, ascariasis, tapeworm disease, etc.
Administration of Semen Pharbitidis(Qiān Niú Zǐ):
Administration Guide of Semen Pharbitidis(Qiān Niú Zǐ)
①.Internally:3~6 grams;②.Internally:prepare to pill,powder,1~3 fen(about 0.3~0.9 grams);water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams);③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams,or prepare to pill,powder,0.3~1 grams each time,2~3 times daily.Fried herb has milder property than raw herb.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should forbidden using the herb Semen Pharbitidis during pregnancy, should not combine with croton, croton cream.
(2).Pharbitis purpurea(L.) Voigt.
Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yuán Yè Qiān Niú(literally it means round leaf pharbitis),or Máo Qiān Niú(literally it means hairy pharbitis). The shape of the leaves is similar to that of Pharbitis nil, the main difference is that the leaves are round cordate or broadly ovate cordate, 4~18 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, usually entire. Flowers axillary, single or 2~5 into umbel cymes, sepals ovate-lanceolate. Cultivated or wild in the flat ground to area with altitude of 2,800 meters above sea level, in fields, roadsides, houses or valleys. It is distributed in most areas of China.
Ecological environment: The plant is cultivated or grow wild in the flat ground to the area with an altitude of 2,800 meters above sea level, in fields, roadsides, houses, or valleys. It mainly distributes throughout China and many other areas.
Characters of herbs: Capsules are subglobose, 9~10 mm in diameter, 3-valved. Seeds are ovoid trigonous, about 5 mm long, dark brown or beige, covered with extremely short chaff-like hairs.
Black Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb Black Pharbitis Seed is the pharbitis seed with its surface colored grayish black.
✵The Black Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Hēi Chǒu(literally it means black ugly), Hēi Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed)".
White Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb White Pharbitis Seed is the pharbitis seed with its surface colored pale yellowish.
✵The White Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Bái Chǒu(literally it means white ugly), Bái Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed)".
Black and White Pharbitis Seed.
Brief introduction: The Herb Black and White Pharbitis Seed is the black and white pharbitis seeds mixed in equal quantities.
✵The Black and White Pharbitis Seed is commonly known as Hēi Bái Chǒu(literally it means black ugly and white ugly), Hēi Bái Qiān Niú Zǐ, the botanical origin was introduced in entry "Semen Pharbitidis(Pharbitis Seed)".
Diuretics and Hydragogues Herbs:Herbs Hydragogues or Drastic Purgatives.
Introduction: Herbs Hydragogues or Drastic Purgatives: also known as diuretic hydragogue herbs, an agent or substance herbs that causes copious discharge of water through catharsis and at the same time increases urine excretion.
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1.Introduction of Qian Niu Zi:Pharbitis Seed or Semen Pharbitidis.