Introduction of Shi Jue Ming:Sea-ear Shell or Concha Haliotidis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sea-ear Shell, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its source six animal species, ①.Haliotis diversicolor Reeve., ②.Haliotis discus hannai Ino., ③.Haliotis ovina Gmelin., ④.Haliotis ruber(Leach)., ⑤.Haliotis asinina Linnaeus., ⑥.Haliotis laevigata(Donovan)., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these six animal species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these six animal species, the features of the herb Sea-ear Shell, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Concha Haliotidis(Sea-ear Shell).

Concha Haliotidis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Shí Jué Mínɡ.
 English Name: Sea-ear Shell.
 Latin Name: Concha Haliotidis.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Concha Haliotidis is the shell of Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, Haliotis asinina L.or Haliotis Laevigata(Donovan), used (1).to pacify the liver and subdue exuberant Yang for the treatment of up-rising of liver Yang with headache and vertigo, and (2).to clear liver heat and improve vision for the treatment of glaucoma and cataracts. The herb is commonly known as Concha Haliotidis, Sea-ear Shell, Shí Jué Mínɡ.

 Source: The common offial herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Concha Haliotidis(Sea-ear Shell) as the shell of species (1). Haliotis diversicolor Reeve., (2). Haliotis discus hannai Ino., (3). Haliotis ovina Gmelin., (4). Haliotis ruber(Leach)., (5). Haliotis asinina Linnaeus., (6). Haliotis laevigata(Donovan). They are a small shellfish of the Haliotidae family of the Archaeogastropoda order. These 6 commonly original species are introduced:

(1).Haliotis diversicolor Reeve.

 Haliotis diversicolor Reeve. Description: It is commonly known as Zá Sè Bào, or Jiǔ Kǒng Bào, or Haliotis diversicolor. The shell is ovoid, with a solid shell, 80~93 mm long and 58~68 mm wide, with a blunt top, located at the back end of the shell, a small spiral part, slightly higher than the shell surface of the body shell, about 3 layers of shell layer, shallow suture, starting from the middle and upper part of the second shell layer to the edge and end of the body shell layer. The shell table has more than 30 neatly arranged in a row and gradually increasing the protuberance and small hole, the front of the protuberance is small but not significant, the top of the protuberance without a hole is a concave hole; There are 6-9 protrusions with large size, opening holes and internal communication, forming water breathing holes, which can be used for respiration and excretion, and tentacles can also be extended from the holes. The shell layer is separated by a protrusion and a small hole into a wide inclined plane, accounting for the majority of the shell; There are irregular spiral ribs and fine growth lines on the surface of the shell. With the growth period of the shell, the developed growth lines gradually take shape in obvious folds. The shell surface is green-brown, or mixed with yellow, red formed by the miscellaneous spots. But often because of epiphytic other organisms, such as bryozoan, calcareous insect, so that it is often grayish brown. Adult shell top wears part, show pearl luster, shell inner surface is silver-white, pearl color luster strong. The shell opening is ovoid, equal to the size of the shell layer. Soft body, flanked on each side by a long and thin tentacles on the back of the head and a handle, one for each eye, the front has a stretch forward to kiss, mouth longitudinal crack in the front, there are teeth, jaw and tongue is extremely rich, mouth is equal, and shell is divided into the upper and under two, under the foot plate-shaped, the whole foot on the back of the central muscle drop is cylindrical, constitute a large muscle, the right side of the shell are connected to the shells on the back. At the lower margin of the right epigastric muscle, the digestive glands are generally dark greenish-brown. Reproductive season of the gonads, the female is grayish-green, the male is milky yellow. There is no rest.

 Haliotis diversicolor Reeve. Ecological Environment: it lives near the low tide line of the warm sea to about 10 meters deep reef or coral reef bottom, living in the environment with high salinity, clear water, and algae, crawling with broad gastropod or firmly adsorbed on the rocks or lurking in the cracks in the reef. When feeding, the tip of the toothed tongue is extended to lick the algae such as silicon, red, and brown on the rock surface. It is distributed in coastal regions of south China, mainly in coastal areas of Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Taiwan, and other areas. It is one of the excellent breeding species in south China.

 Sea-ear Shell:herb photo Characters of herbs: It is a long ovoid, the inner surface is slightly ear-shaped, 7~9 cm long, 5~6 cm wide, and about 2 cm high. The surface is dark red, with many irregular spiral ribs and fine growth lines. The spiral part is small and the body spiral part is large. From the top of the spiral part, there are more than 20 warty protrusions arranged to the right, with 6~9 holes at the end, and the holes are flat with the shell surface. The inner surface is smooth, with pearly luster. The shell is thick, slightly smooth, the texture is firm and hard, not easily broken, and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~10 mm thick, with obvious layers. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly salty.

(2).Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

 Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Description: It is commonly known as Zhòu Wén Pán Bào. Shells are oval, 120~125 mm long, 82~85 mm wide, flat shell roof is located at the rear shell, slightly higher than the shell surface, screw about 3 layers, each layer suture line between shallow, since 2 screw central layers, with 1 column gradually from small to big, the spiral arrangement bumps along the right to left, 20 to 30, to the edges of the screw body, close to shell 3-5 protrusions, open and outside are interlinked, also formed hole, along the breath hole column bottom, on the left side there is an obvious spiral groove. The shell surface is dark green-brown, with many rough and irregular wrinkles. On the larger shell, bryozoan and dragon medium often form protruding attachments. The inner surface of the shell is silver-white, with pearl-like luster.

 Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Ecological Environment: They prefer to live in the waters with the unobvious tidal current, high transparency, and lush brown algae. They live in the water depth of 3~15 meters, and less in the deepwater area near the low tide line or below 20 meters. The larvae mainly feed on diatoms, while the adults mostly feed on brown and red algae, as well as foraminifera, copepods, polychaete, and other small animals. It is distributed in the coastal area at Lianyungang of Jiangsu province, and other areas. It is the best variety of abalone with the largest individual and the highest yield in China. Now it is not only adapted to the northern coastal culture, and has been successful in the southern coastal culture.

 Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Characters of herbs: It is a long oval, 8~12 cm long, 6~8 cm wide, and 2~3 cm high. The surface is gray-brown, with many rough and irregular wrinkles, the growth lines are obvious, and often attached objects such as mosses or lime worms (screw-worm). There are 4~5 holes at the end, and the orifices protrude from the shell surface. The shell is thin and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~5 mm.

(3).Haliotis ovina Gmelin.

 Haliotis ovina Gmelin. Description: It is commonly known as Yáng Bào. With thin shell short, wide, flat in ovoid, shell is 80~88 mm long, also can reach more than 100 mm, the largest shell width is about 5/7 of the length, senior is 1/4 to 1/5, shell roof is located in the middle of almost, spiral department with body screw department about each half, screw about 4 layers, from 3 screw to screw body layer edge, has more than 20 protrusions, nearly shell there are 4-5 openings of mouth, a tubular hole, the rest of the total blindness closed. Shell surface rib width ambassador shell surface rough, sometimes with bryozoans and other forms of verrucous process, shell surface is grey-green or brownish, scattered orange-yellow and white spots. The inner shell is silver-white with a greenish pearl luster.

 Ecological Environment: It lives in the low tide line near the rock reef crack, produced in Sanya, Hainan island, lingshui coastal area. Its meat is edible. It is found in China's Xisha Islands, Australia. It's also found on Luzon Island.

 Characters of herbs: It is nearly round, small, 4~8 cm long, 2.5~6 cm wide, and 0.8~2 cm high. The apex of the shell is located near the middle and higher than the surface of the shell, and the spiral part and the body spiral part each account for 1/2. There are two rows of neat protrusions from the edge of the spiral part, it is especially obvious in the upper part, with 4~5 holes at the end, which are tubular.

(4).Haliotis ruber(Leach).

 Haliotis ruber Leach. Description: It is commonly known as ào Zhōu Bào. Haliotis ruber are produced in the sea area of Australia. They are large and thick in meat. The small ones are 200~300 grams and the big ones are 600~700 grams. Shell is thick, with 7~9 holes, some big Haliotis ruber for a long time, shell is covered with long seaweed, shell meat surface is red or light yellow.

 It takes eight years for the wild abalone to grow to about a kilogram in size. When fishing for abalone, divers must dive 20 meters below the freezing waters of southern Australia to catch the rare fish. It can be said that Australian abalone is precious.

 Haliotis ruber Leach. Australia produces about 4,600 tonnes of wild abalone a year under strict fishing standards laws. These fresh, rich and wild abalone are all caught by professional divers who dive into the cold and dark ocean currents 20 meters below the sea surface of southern Australia.

 There are three main types of Australian Abalone: Blue border Abalone, Black border Abalone, and hybridization Abalone from the 2 species, Black border Abalone and Blue border Abalone like two regions of two different species, do not mix: black border Abalone generally live in Australia about 40 ° south of the equator east Pacific coast, while Blue border Abalone live in Australia about 40 ° southwest Eritrea Sea.

 Characters of herbs: It is a flat oval, 13~17 cm long, 11~14 cm wide, and 3.5~6 cm high. The surface is brick-red, the spiral part is about 1/2 of the shell surface, the spiral ribs and growth lines are undulated, with more than 30 verrucous protrusions, with 7~9 holes at the end, and the orifices protrude from the shell surface.

(5).Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.

 Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. Description: It is commonly known as ěr Bào. The shell is small and flat, shape like an ear, 65~70 mm long, less than 1/2 the width of the shell, and about 1/3 the height of the shell. Shell is thin, slightly twisted, from the second layer of the main shell layer edge than a row of water holes, there are about 30 protuberances, the end of the largest part has 4-7 holes, 6 holes are more common, from the second layer to the shell edge there is 4~5 obvious rib. Shell surface long line is obvious, shell surface is quite smooth and beautiful, often show emerald green or yellowish-brown, and cloth has purple-brown and yellow triangle stripes, some are still mixed with a variety of colors composed of irregular cloud spot, shell inner surface is silver-white, there are pale green flash and pearl luster.

 Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. Ecological Environment: It is distributed in Hainan island and Xisha, Dongsha islands, and Taiwan strait of China.

 Characters of herbs: It is long and narrow, slightly twisted, ear-shaped, 5~8 cm long, 2.5~3.5 cm wide and about 1 cm high. The surface is smooth, with markings of emerald green, purple and brown. The spiral part is small, the body spiral part is large, and there are 5~7 holes at the end. The orifices are flat with the shell, mostly are oval, the shell is thin and brittle, and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~1.5 mm thick.

(6).Haliotis laevigata(Donovan).

 Haliotis laevigata Donovan. Description: It is commonly known as Bái Bào. Oval, 11~14 cm long, 8.5~11 cm wide, 3~6.5 cm high. The surface is brick red, smooth, the top of the shell is higher than the surface of the shell, the growth line is quite obvious, the spiral part is about 1/3 of the surface of the shell, more than 30 wart-shaped protrusions, 9 holes at the end, and the hole opening is flat with the shell.

 Characters of herbs: It is oval, 11~14 cm long, 8.5~11 cm wide and 3~6.5 cm high. The surface is erythrinus (brick red) and smooth, the apex of shell is higher than the surface of the shell, and the growth line is quite obvious. The spiral part is about 1/3 of the surface of the shell, there are more than 30 verrucous protrusions, and there are 9 holes at the end, and the orifices are flat with the shell.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.neutralize excessive gastric acid; ②.antipyretic; ③.sedative; ④.spasmolysis; ⑤.lowering blood pressure; ⑥.anti-inflammatory; ⑦.hemostasis and anticoagulant; ⑧.anti-infection and bacteriostatic effect (obvious inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa); ⑨.obvious anti-hypoxia effect; ⑩.immune suppression, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calm the liver and subdue yang (suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding yang), clearing heat, clearing liver and improving vision (removing liver-fire for improving eyesight), remove nebula. It is indicated for headache and dizziness, disturbing upward of wind Yang, red eyes and nebula (conjunctival congestion, slight corneal opacity), dim eyesight (dimsighted), glaucoma (blue blindness, optic atrophy) and night blindness, glaucoma and cataract (blue blindness, cataract), frightened spasm, bone steaming (hectic fever due to yin deficiency) and consumptive fever, etc. 

 Administration of Concha Haliotidis (Shí Jué Mínɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Concha Haliotidis (Shí Jué Mínɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~20 grams, decoct earlier; ②.Internally:water decoction (better decoct for long time),0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams);or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder while adding water, eye droppings; ③.Internally:water decoction,10~30 grams, cracked and decoct earlier;or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder while adding water, eye droppings.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Concha Haliotidis should not be combined with Flos Inulae, Mica, etc.

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