Introduction of Shi Jue Ming:Sea-ear Shell or Concha Haliotidis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sea-ear Shell, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its source six animal species, ①.Haliotis diversicolor Reeve., ②.Haliotis discus hannai Ino., ③.Haliotis ovina Gmelin., ④.Haliotis ruber (Leach)., ⑤.Haliotis asinina Linnaeus., ⑥.Haliotis laevigata (Donovan)., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these six animal species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these six animal species, the features of the herb Sea-ear Shell, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Concha Haliotidis(Sea-ear Shell).

many herb blocks and pieces of Concha Haliotidis Pin Yin Name: Shí Jué Mínɡ.
 English Name: Sea-ear Shell.
 Latin Name: Concha Haliotidis.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Concha Haliotidis is the shell of Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, Haliotis asinina L.or Haliotis Laevigata (Donovan), used (1).to pacify the liver and subdue exuberant Yang for the treatment of up-rising of liver Yang with headache and vertigo, and (2).to clear liver heat and improve vision for the treatment of glaucoma and cataracts. The herb is commonly known as Concha Haliotidis, Sea-ear Shell, Shí Jué Mínɡ.

 Source: The common offial herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Concha Haliotidis (Sea-ear Shell) as the shell of species (1). Haliotis diversicolor Reeve., (2). Haliotis discus hannai Ino., (3). Haliotis ovina Gmelin., (4). Haliotis ruber (Leach)., (5). Haliotis asinina Linnaeus., (6). Haliotis laevigata (Donovan). They are a small shellfish of the Haliotidae family of the Archaeogastropoda order. These 6 commonly original species are introduced:

(1).Haliotis diversicolor Reeve.


 a colorful drawing of Haliotis diversicolor Reeve Shellfish Description: It is commonly known as Zá Sè Bào, or Jiǔ Kǒng Bào, or Haliotis diversicolor. The shell is ovoid, chitin is firm and solid, 80~93 mm long, and 58~68 mm wide, apex of the shell is blunt, located at the back end of the shell, the spire (spiral part) is short and small, slightly higher than the shell surface of the body whorl, spiral whorl is in about 3 layers, suture line is shallow, starting from the middle and upper part of the second spiral whorl to the edge and end of the body whorl. The shell surface has more than 30 protrusions and pores arranged orderly and gradually turning bigger, the protrusions on the front part are small and indistinctive, and the top of the protuberance without a pore has a concave pit; 6–9 protrusions are extremely big, the pore connected with the internal part, forming water breathing holes, has a function of respiration and excretion, and tentacles can also stretch out from the pore canal. The body whorl is separated by protrusions and pores and forms a rib area, into a wide and big inclined plane (a plane of inclination), accounting for the vast majority of the shell; there are irregular ribs and fine growth lines on the surface of the shell, with the growth period of the shell, the developed growth lines gradually take shape in distinct shirrings. The shell surface is olive-brown (greenish-brown), or mixed with motley colored patches of yellow and red. But because of adnascent other organisms, such as bryozoan, lime worms (calcarina or spirorbis), etc., so that it is often taupe (grayish brown or dust color). The worn-out part of the apex of the shell has a nacreous luster (pearly luster), the shell's inner surface is silvery white, and its nacreous colorful luster is strong. The shell aperture is oval (egg-shaped), nearly equal in size as the body whorl. Its body is soft, the both sides of the head back have a pair of thin and long tentacles, and 1 pair of shafted eyes, the ventral surface has a protrusive proboscis, a mouth longitudinally cracks in the front end, there are mandibles, a hyoid tooth inside, the shellfish foot is extremely developed, mouth is equal to shell aperture, and divided into upper foot and lower foot, the lower foot is disc-shaped, the central muscle of the whole foot back is raised and cylindrical, compose big right adductor muscle, the backside connects with the shell. On the lower edge of the right adductor muscle, the general digestive gland is visible, dark breen (dark brownish green); its genital gland in the breeding season, is celadon (sage green) in female shellfish, and is milky yellow in male shellfish. It has no operculum.

 many shellfishes of Haliotis diversicolor Reeve are piled together. Ecological Environment: The shellfish lives near the subtidal line of the warm sea to about 10 meters deep rocky reefs or coral reef sea bottom, living in the environment with high salinity, clear water, and clusters of algae, crawling with broad uropod or firmly adsorbed on rocks or lurking in the reef cracks. When feeding, the tip of the radula (lingual teeth) stretch out to lick the algae such as diatom, Rhodophyta (red algae), and Phaeophyceae (brown algae) on the rock surface. It is distributed in coastal regions of south China, mainly in coastal areas of southeast and south areas, Taiwan, and other areas. It is one of the good breeding species in South China.

 herb blocks and pieces of Sea-ear Shell Characters of herbs: It is a long ovoid (long oval), the inner surface is slightly auriform (ear-shaped), 7~9 cm long, 5~6 cm wide, and about 2 cm high. The surface is kermesinus (garnet or dark red), has many irregular ribs and fine and dense growth lines. The spire is small, and the body whorl is big. From the tip of the spire, there are over 20 verrucous protrusions arranged rightward, with 6~9 open pores at the end, and the pore orifices are flat with the shell surface. The shell's inner surface is smooth, has nacreous colorful luster. The shell is thick, slightly smooth, the texture is firm and hard, not easily broken, and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~10 mm, has more conspicuous layers. The herb has a slight odor or is odorless, it tastes slightly salty.

(2).Haliotis discus hannai Ino.


 a shellfish of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Shellfish Description: It is also known as Haliotis gigantea discus Reeve (H.gigantea discus Reeve), commonly known as Zhòu Wén Pán Bào, Xiā Yí Pán Bào, Pán Dà Bào Pan. Shells are elliptic, 120~125 mm long, and 82~85 mm wide, flat apex of the shell is located at the rear side of the shell, slightly higher than the shell surface, spiral whorl is in about 3 layers, and suture lines between each layer are shallow, from the middle of the 2nd spiral whorl, has 1 column of protrusions, about 20 to 30, which gradually turned from small to big, and spirally arranged from right to left, to the edges of the body whorl, and 3–5 protrusions near the shell aperture, open pore and outside are connected, and form water breathing holes, along the underside of the breathing hole column, there is an obvious spiral groove. The shell surface is dark olive-brown, and has many rough and irregular wrinkles, on a larger shell, bryozoan and serpula (calcarina or spirorbis) often form protruding attachments. The shell's inner surface is silvery white and has a pearl-like luster.

 colorful shellfish shells of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Ecological Environment: They prefer to live in waters with unobvious tidal current, high transparency, and lush phaeophyceae (brown algae). They live in the water depth of 3~15 meters, and fewer live in the deepwater area near the subtidal line or profundal zone below 20 meters. The larvae mainly feed on diatoms, while the adult shellfish mostly feed on phaeophyceae (brown algae) and rhodophyta (red algae), as well as foraminifer (calcarina), copepods, polychaetes, and other small animals. It is distributed in the coastal area at Lianyungang, and other areas. It is the best variety of Haliotis with the biggest individuals and the highest yield. Now it is not only adapted to the northern coastal culture, and has been successfully cultivated in the southern coastal regions.

 several shellfishes of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Characters of herbs: It is oblong oval, 8~12 cm long, 6~8 cm wide, and 2~3 cm high. The surface is taupe brown, has many rough and irregular wrinkles, the growth lines are obvious, and often has attachments such as bryophytes or calcarina (spirorbis). There are 4~5 open pores at the end, and the pore orifices protrude from the shell surface. The shell is thin, and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~5 mm.

(3).Haliotis ovina Gmelin.


 a shellfish of Haliotis ovina Gmelin. Shellfish Description: It is commonly known as Yáng Bào, or Taiwan Shí Jué Mínɡ. The shell is thin and wide, flat ovoid, shell is 80~88 mm long, also can reach over 100 mm long, the shell width is about 5/7 of the length, the height is about 1/4 to 1/5 of the length, the apex of the shell is near the middle, the spire and body whorl shares half each, spiral whorl is in about 4 layers, from the 2nd spiral whorl to the edge of the body whorl, has over 20 protrusions, 4–5 protrusions near to shell aperture have open pores, are water breathing holes and tubiform (tubulose), the rest are blindly closed. The ribs on the shell surface are wide and broad and make the shell surface rough and uneven, sometimes has verrucous protrusions formed by bryozoan, the shell surface is celadon (sage green or grayish green) or brownish, with scattered orange-yellow and white variegations. The shell's inner surface is silvery white, with a turquois pearl luster.

 Ecological Environment: It lives in the sublittoral zone near the rocks and coral reef, and algae in the sea bottom, and it is produced in Sanya, Hainan island, lingshui coastal area. Its meat is edible. It is found in China's Xisha Islands, Australia. It's also found on Luzon Island.

 Characters of herbs: It is orbicular (rotund), small, 4~8 cm long, 2.5~6 cm wide, and 0.8~2 cm high. The apex of the shell is located near the middle and higher than the surface of the shell, and the spire and the body whorl account for 1/2 each, there are two rows of orderly protrusions from the edge of the spire, it is especially obvious in the upper part, and the terminal 4~5 open pores are tubular.

(4).Haliotis ruber (Leach).


 a shellfish of Haliotis ruber Leach. Shellfish Description: It is commonly known as ào Zhōu Bào. Haliotis ruber is produced in the sea area of Australia. It is big and hypertrophic. The small shellfishes are 200~300 grams and the big shellfishes are 600~700 grams. Its shell is thick, with 7~9 open pores, some big Haliotis ruber grows a long time, the shell is covered with long seaweed, shell's surface is red or light yellow.

 It takes eight years for the wild abalone to grow to about a kilogram in size. When fishing for abalone, divers must dive 20 meters below the freezing waters of southern Australia to catch the rare shellfish. Australian abalone is precious.

 fisherman hold shellfishes of Haliotis ruber Leach. Australia produces about 4,600 tonnes of wild abalone a year under strict fishing standards laws. These fresh, hypertrophic, and wild abalone are collected by professional divers who dive into the cold and dark ocean currents 20 meters below the sea surface.

 There are three main types of Australian Abalone: Blue border Abalone, Black border Abalone, and cross-bred Abalone from the 2 species, Black border Abalone and Blue border Abalone like two different species in two regions, do not mix: black border Abalone generally live in Australia about 40 ° south of the equator east Pacific coast, while Blue border Abalone live in Australia about 40 ° southwest Eritrea Sea.

 Characters of herbs: It is a flat oval (flat egg-shaped), 13~17 cm long, 11~14 cm wide, and 3.5~6 cm high. The surface is brick-red, the spire is about 1/2 of the shell surface, the ribs and growth lines are undulated, with more than 30 verrucous protrusions, has 7~9 open pores at the end, and the pore orifices are protuberant on the shell surface.

(5).Haliotis asinina Linnaeus.


 shellfish shells of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. Shellfish Description: It is commonly known as ěr Bào. The shell is small and flat, auriform (ear-shaped), 65~70 mm long, the width is less than 1/2 the length of the shell, and the height is about 1/3 the width of the shell. The shell is thin, slightly twisted, from the row of water-breathing holes on the second spiral whorl of the body whorl edge, there are about 30 protrusions, the terminal largest protrusions have 4-7 open pores, 6 open pores are more common, from the second spiral whorl to the shell edge there are 4~5 distinct ribs. The growth lines on the shell surface are obvious, the shell surface is quite smooth and beautiful, often showing emerald (jade green) or yellowish-brown, and has puce (purple-brown) and Khaki triangular streaks, some are still mixed with a variety of colors and compose irregular cloudy spot. The shell's inner surface is silvery white, there are pale green flash and pearl luster.

 a brownish shellfish of Haliotis asinina Linnaeus. Ecological Environment: It lives on rocks and coral reefs, clusters of algae in the sea bottom below the subtidal line, its foot muscle is very hypertrophic, has a strong motoricity, and has a deep vertical groove on its rear foot, and it often turns its foot upward to wrap the whole shell. Its meat is edible. It is found in the Hsisha Islands, Dongsha Islands, Hainan Island, and Taiwan Strait.

 Characters of herbs: It is narrow and long, slightly twisted, auriform (ear-shaped), 5~7 cm long, 2.5~3.5 cm wide, and about 1 cm high. The surface is smooth, with markings of emerald (jade green), purple and brown. The spire is small, the body whorl is large, and there are 5~7 open pores at the end, the pore orifices are flat with the shell, mostly elliptical shape, the shell is thin, the chitin is crisp, and the thickness of the fracture surface is 0.5~1.5 mm.

(6).Haliotis laevigata (Donovan).


 two shells of Haliotis laevigata Donovan. Shellfish Description: It is commonly known as Bái Bào. The shellfish is oval (egg-shaped), 11~14 cm long, 8.5~11 cm wide, and 3~6.5 cm high. The surface is brick red and smooth, the apex of the shell is higher than the shell surface, the growth lines are quite obvious, the spire is about 1/3 of the shell surface, and has over 30 verrucous protrusions, 9 open pores at the end, and the pore orifices are flat with the shell.

 Characters of herbs: It is oval (egg-shaped), 11~14 cm long, 8.5~11 cm wide, and 3~6.5 cm high. The surface is erythrinus (brick red) and smooth, the apex of the shell is higher than the surface of the shell, and the growth lines are quite obvious. The spire is about 1/3 of the shell surface and has over 30 verrucous protrusions, there are 9 open pores at the end, and the pore orifices are flat with the shell.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.neutralize excessive gastric acid; ②.antipyretic; ③.sedative; ④.spasmolysis; ⑤.lowering blood pressure; ⑥.anti-inflammatory; ⑦.hemostasis and anticoagulant; ⑧.anti-infection and bacteriostatic effect (obvious inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa); ⑨.obvious anti-hypoxia effect; ⑩.immune suppression, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calm the liver and subdue yang (suppressing hyperactive liver and subsiding yang), clearing heat, clearing liver and improving vision (removing liver-fire for improving eyesight), remove nebula. It is indicated for headache and dizziness, disturbing upward of wind Yang, red eyes and nebula (conjunctival congestion, slight corneal opacity), dim eyesight (dimsighted), glaucoma (blue blindness, optic atrophy) and night blindness, glaucoma and cataract (blue blindness, cataract), frightened spasm, bone steaming (hectic fever due to yin deficiency) and consumptive fever, etc. 

 Administration of Concha Haliotidis (Shí Jué Mínɡ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Concha Haliotidis (Shí Jué Mínɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~20 grams, decoct earlier; ②.Internally:water decoction (better decoct for long time), 0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams);or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder while adding water, eye droppings; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, cracked and decoct earlier;or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder while adding water, eye droppings.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Concha Haliotidis should not be combined with Flos Inulae, Mica, etc.

 

 
  

 

 QR codeURL QR code:
 Website Address QR-code 

 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Shi Jue Ming:Sea-ear Shell or Concha Haliotidis.

 Last edit and latest revision date:
   cool hit counter