Introduction of Tian Ma:Gastrodia Tuber or Rhizoma Gastrodiae.
✵The article gives records of the herb Gastrodia Tuber, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Gastrodia elata Bl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Gastrodia Tuber, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Gastrodia Tuber).
Pin Yin Name: Tiān Má.
English Name: Gastrodia Tuber.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Gastrodiae.
Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Gastrodiae is the dried tuber of Gastrodia elata Bl., used (1).to extinguish wind and relieve spasm for treating convulsion and hemiplegia in cases of apoplexy, (2).to pacify the liver and subdue exuberant Yang for relieving headache, dizziness and vertigo, and (3).to relieve rheumatalgia. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Gastrodia Tuber, Tiān Má.
Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Gastrodiae, or Tall Gastrodia Tuber as the dry rhizome of the plant species (1).Gastrodia elata Bl. It is a plant of the Gastrodia R. Br. genus, the Orchidaceae family (orchid family) of the Asparagales order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Gastrodia elata Bl.
Botanical description: Gastrodia elata Bl is a plant of the Orchidaceae family (orchid family) and Gastrodia genus, it is commonly known as Gastrodia elata, or Tiān Má. A perennial parasitic herb, the plant grows up to 30–100 cm high, or 60–100 cm high, sometimes up to 2 meters high; the whole plant does not have chlorophyll. The rhizome is hypertrophic and thick, tuberous, succulent, oblong, about 10 cm long, 3-4.5 cm in diameter, sometimes larger, with inconspicuous annulus nodes. Stems are cylindrical and yellow-red. Leaves are scaly, membraneous, 1-2 cm long, have fine veinlets, and the lower part is short-sheathed and amplexicaular (stem-clasping).
Racemes are apical, 10-30 cm long, usually 30~50 flowers, flowers are yellow-red; pedicels (flower stalks) are short, 2-3 mm long; flower bracts are membraneous, narrow-lanceolate or linear oblong-oval, about 1 cm long; perianth tube is crooked gyalectiform, the tube opening is oblique, the lower side of the base is slightly enlarged, the apex is 5-lobed, lobes are small, triangular; labellum is 2/3 higher than the perianth tube, has 3 lobes, the central lobe is bigger, its base is short stipitate-shape in perianth tube; the gynostemium (gynandrium) is 5-6 mm long, the apex has 2 small appendages; ovary is obovate, podogynium (gynophore) twist.
Capsularfruits are oblong to oblong-obovate, about 15 mm long, and short stipitate. Seeds are many, fine, tiny, and pulverulent. Its flowering period is from June to July, and the fruiting period is from July to August.
Ecological Environment: Gastrodia elata Bl grows in dankish and thick humus places, in sparse forests, forest edges, and bush edges, and in areas at altitudes of 400–3,200 meters above sea level. This species is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, in the northwest, southwest, and Taiwan regions of China. The herb is mostly cultivated nowadays. This species is also distributed in Nepal, Bhutan, and Siberia.
Growth characteristics: Gastrodia elata Bl prefers a cool, moist environment, is afraid of cold and drought, and is afraid of high temperatures and waterlogging. Gastrodia elata has no roots and no green leaf blades. Throughout its life cycle, about 2 years, it lurks in the soil as a tuber all year. A special way to obtain nutrition, especially from the invasion of the body of Armillaria mycelia, is for growth and development. It is appropriate to choose a field with loose and fertile soil, sandy loam with rich humus, a pH value (pH scale: acidity-basicity) of 5.5–6.0, and good drainage for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: The tubers are oblong oval or long strips, slightly flat, wrinkled, and slightly curved, 5–12 cm or 3–15 cm long, 1.5–6 cm wide or 2–6 cm wide, and 0.5-2 cm or 0.5–3 cm thick. The surface is yellowish-white or pale yellow to yellowish-brown, slightly transparent, with vertical wrinkles and grooves, and has a ring pattern composed of punctate cicatrices (multiple circles of horizontal ring patterns formed by an arrangement of latent buds), and sometimes there is a visible brown rhizomorph. There are red-brown to dark-brown parrot-beak-shaped buds at the top (Winter Gastrodia, commonly known as parrot-beak Gastrodia), a residual stem base or stem mark (Spring Gastrodia), and a round umbilicate scar on the bottom. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, not easy to break, the fracture surface is flat, keratose, off-white or yellowish-white to pale brown, glossy, with cracks in the core part. The herb has a unique odor, it tastes sweet and slightly pungent. The herb of a better grade has a solid and firm texture, is heavy, with parrot-beak-shaped buds, and the fracture surface is bright, with no hollowness, normally it is Winter Gastrodia.
Pharmacological actions: ①.sedative effect, reduce the voluntary activities of mice, prolong sleep time; ②.anti-convulsive effect; ③.anti-hypoxia effect; ④.anti-inflammatory effect; ⑤.polysaccharide can enhance the body's non-specific immunity and cellular immunity.
Medicinal efficacy: Calming endogenous wind and relieving convulsion, stopping convulsion, calm liver Yang, dispel wind and free collaterals. It is indicated for infantile convulsions, acute and chronic infantile convulsion, epilepsy and convulsion, spasm (muscular constricture), tetanus (lockjaw), cephalea and dizziness (headache and dizziness), dizziness and black eyes, wind syndrome of head and cephalea (intermittent headache), hemiplegia, limb numbness, rheumatic arthralgia pain, hemiplegia, aphasia (inability to use or understand language because of a brain lesion).
Administration of Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tiān Má):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Gastrodiae (Tiān Má)
①.Internally:3~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder, prepare to ground herb powder and swallow,1~1.5 grams each time.
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1.Introduction of Tian Ma:Gastrodia Tuber or Rhizoma Gastrodiae.