✵The article gives records of the herb Scorpion, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one insect species, ①.Buthus martensii Karsch., with a detailed introduction to the features of the insect species, the life habits, and ecological environment of this insect species, the features of the herb Scorpion, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Pin Yin Name: Quán Xiē.
English Name: Scorpion.
Latin Name: Scorpio.
Property and flavor: neutral in nature, pungent, toxic.
Brief introduction: The herb Scorpio is the boiled and dried body of Buthus martensii Karsch, used to subdue endogenous wind for the treatment of various kinds of tics, convulsion, tetanus and sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents. The herb is commonly known as Scorpio, Scorpion, Quán Xiē.
Insect Source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Scorpio(Scorpion) as the dried body of the species (1). Buthus martensii Karsch. It is an animal of the Sagittarius genus, the Buthidae family of the Scorpionida order. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Buthus martensii Karsch.
Insect Description: The insect is commonly known as Dōng Yà Qián Xiē (means East Asia Scorpios), Qián Xiē, Wèn Jīng Xiē (means Scorpios of equisetum shape), or Buthus martensii. It is one of the most widely distributed scorpion species in China. Body length is about 60 mm, torso (head, chest, and preabdomen) is olive-brown (greenish brown), and tail (postabdomen) is khaki. Its tergite of the cephalothorax is trapezoidal. Lateral eyes are in 3 pairs. The sternal plate is triangular, forcipiform upper limbs of the chelicera have 2 teeth. Pedipalps are forcipiform (tong-like), and the inside of upper limbs and hindlimbs has 12 rows of granules obliquely arranged. The tibiae of the 3rd and 4th pairs of ambulatory legs are calcariferous, the tarsus end of ambulatory legs have 2 claws and 1 calcar. The front notum of the preabdomen (front abdomen) has 5 ridge lines. The genital operculum is composed of 2 semicircular sclerites. The comb has 16–25 teeth. The first 4 segments of the postabdomen have 10 ridge lines each, the 5th segment only has 5 ridge lines, and the poison sting of the 6th segment is ecalcarate underside.
Biological characteristics: East Asia Scorpios belong to the arthropod class, originally lived in wild fields, and give birth to one fetus a year. After artificial culture, through maintaining a certain temperature, and humidity, promotes its normal growth and development, in a year it can give birth to two fetuses, it is a kind of precious medicinal insect. Artificial scorpion investment is little, needs a small field (every square meter rick can be used to keep about 2000 scorpions), spare time management, it can be raised indoors and outdoors.
East Asia Scorpios are cold-blooded, it is a kind of poison insect, generally not easy to get contagious diseases, epidemic prevention, even as a result of dry, wet, crowded, environmental factors such as pressure caused casualties, some are still could be prepared to medicinal materials, has a certain economic value, the scorpion can feed on both flour weevil (yellow mealworm), vegetables, fruit and leaves, under the condition of thermostatic cultivation (breeding without winter hibernation), breeding needs 8 to 10 months. According to the annual production of two young scorpions per adult scorpion, foster-birth 25~35, a young scorpion needs 9 months to grow into an adult scorpion.
After fertilization, the male and female go through the ovulation stage, and embryo development stage, and give birth in the form of a young scorpion for about 110 days. A young scorpion grows into a mature one after 6 ecdyses. The food is mainly soft juicy insects: it has a positive tendency to temperature and humidity, and a negative tendency to strong light, sound, and vibration. The maximum activity temperature of various enzymes in vivo is 35-40 °C (Celsius, or 95~104 degrees Fahrenheit).
According to the negative tendency to light, scorpions are bred in a dark environment for a long time, and their activities such as foraging, mating, and reproduction gradually eliminate the influence of circadian rhythm. According to the positive tendency to temperature, scorpions grow in a relatively constant temperature environment for a long time. After several generations of adaptation, the scorpion's growth period evolved from three years to 8 to 10 months.
Life habits: Scorpions live in dark and humid places, are nocturnal (hide by day and come out at night), afraid of freezing, hiding in the soil in winter, do not eat for a long time, come out after the Awakening of Insects (or Excited Insects, one of the lunar calendar's solar terms: in 5th to 7th of March). It is a carnivorous insect and likes to eat insects, ants, earthworms, terrapins, worms, and other succulent mollusks. Perennial, strong fertility. Its breeding usually takes place around July.
Physical habits:1. scorpions are nocturnal insects (hide by day and come out at night), like dampness and fears of wetness, darkness, and fears of strong light stimulation. They live in groups, are quiet and not active, and have the habit of nest recognition and group recognition. Most scorpions live in groups in fixed nests. Generally in large groups of scorpions nests mostly have females and males, are big and small, live together in harmony, and rarely kill each other. But if it is not the same as the scorpion, encounters will often kill each other.
2. Scorpions have the habit of hibernation, generally, in late April, that is, after the Awakening of Insects, insects begin to hibernate in early November, the annual activity time is about 6 months. During the day, scorpions usually come out from 8 PM to 11 PM after sunset and return to their nests from 2 to 3 AM the next day. This pattern of activity is usually found at night when the ground is dry and warm, but they rarely come out on windy days.
3. Scorpions are poikilothermic insects, but they are cold and heat-resistant. In climates where the temperature of the outside environment is from 40 °C to -5 °C (Celsius, or 104~23 degrees Fahrenheit), scorpions can survive. The growth, development, and reproduction of scorpions are closely related to temperature. When the temperature drops below 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), scorpions are less active. When the temperature drops below 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit), scorpions are less active. The most suitable temperature for their growth and development is between 25 °C (Celsius, or 77 degrees Fahrenheit) and 39 °C (Celsius, or 102.2 degrees Fahrenheit). Scorpions are most active when the temperature is between 35 °C (Celsius, or 95 degrees Fahrenheit) and 39 °C (Celsius, or 102.2 degrees Fahrenheit). Their growth and development are accelerated. If the temperature exceeds 41 °C (Celsius, or 105.8 degrees Fahrenheit), the water inside the scorpion will evaporate. If the scorpion does not cool down in time or supply water in time, it will easily become dehydrated and die. When the temperature exceeds 43 °C (Celsius, or 109.4 degrees Fahrenheit), scorpions die soon. Activity, growth, and reproduction of scorpions are closely related to temperature. The optimum temperature is between 35 °C (Celsius, or 95 degrees Fahrenheit) and 38 °C (Celsius, or 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit). Therefore, the temperatures in the artificial culture of scorpions need attention.
4. The growth and reproduction of scorpions are closely related to the humidity of the external environment. In nature, the wild scorpion, if there is a long time without rain, will drill into the ground about 1 meter deep wet place to hide; When the weather is rainy and there is water on the ground, they will climb up to hide. Therefore, when raising scorpions, pay attention to the moisture in the feed, as well as the humidity in the feeding ground and nests. Generally speaking, the activity place of the scorpion should be moist, and the nest that they inhabit needs a little dryness, this is advantageous to the scorpion's growth development and reproduction. If the nest is too wet, it is vulnerable to slight damage, scorpion peel is also very difficult; If the activity place of a scorpion is too dry, and the water in the feed is insufficient, also affects the normal growth and development of scorpion, even can induce mutual attacking.
5. Scorpions like dark and afraid of light, especially afraid of the stimulation of strong light, but they also need a certain degree of illumination, to absorb the sun's heat, improve digestion, speed up the growth and development of the speed, and is conducive to the embryo in pregnant scorpion body incubation process. Scorpions have been reported and observed to have a positive tendency toward weak light and a negative tendency toward strong light, but they most like to operate in weak green light.
6. Scorpions are sensitive to a variety of strong odor, such as paint, gasoline, kerosene, asphalt and a variety of chemicals, pesticides, fertilizers, and lime, such as strong avoidance, their sense of smell are very sensitive, the stimulation of these substances is very adverse to scorpions, even lead to death. Scorpions are also very sensitive to all kinds of strong vibrations and sounds, sometimes even scare them away, stop eating, mating and breeding, birth, etc.
The life cycle: Scorpions generally live about 8 years and breed for about 5 years. According to the growth, the development stage is divided into 1-7-year-old scorpion, and pregnant scorpion. Ages 1 to 7 are calculated not by year, but by the number of times they exuviate (cast the shell). In greenhouse conditions, the young scorpion can grow to 1~2 years old in about 4 days. In about 50 days it can grow to 2~3 age, in 105 days it can grow to 3~4 age; in 160 days it can grow to 4~5 years old; in 215 days it can grow to about 5~6 years old; in about 280 days it can grow to 6~7 years old.
Ecological Environment: Ovoviviparity. More burrowing, it prefers to live in a stone gap under stones, or under wilted leaves, nocturnal, and prey on insects, spiders, and other animals. It is distributed all over the country, especially in the northern areas of the Yangtze River.
Characters of herbs: The cephalothorax (head and chest) and preabdomen (front abdomen) of this herb are flat and oblong oval, and the postabdomen is caudiform (tail-shaped), wizened, and bending. The intact one is about 6 cm long. The cephalothorax (head and chest) is olive-brown (green-brown), and has a pair of short small chelicera and a pair of long and big forcipiform pedipalpus, which are similar in shape of crab chela, the back is covered with trapezoidal tergite (carapace), and the ventral surface has 4 pairs of ambulatory leg, all of which are in 7 segments, with 2 claw hooks at the ends. The preabdomen consists of 7 segments, the 7th segment is a dark color, and there are 5 ridge lines on the tergite. The back is olive-brown, the postabdomen is brown-yellow, and there are 6 segments, there are longitudinal grooves in the segments, sharp hook stingers (poison stings) in the end segment, and excalcarate under the stingers. The herb has a slightly fishy smell, it tastes salty.
Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-convulsion effect; ②.on the cardiovascular system:showing the effect of lowering blood pressure.
Medicinal efficacy: Calming endogenous wind and relieve spasmodic, dispersing pathogenic wind, relieving convulsion, free collateral and relieve pain, detoxify, conteracting toxic substances and removing stasis. It is indicated for endogenous liver wind, convulsion and spasm, infantile convulsion, apoplexia and lockjaw, epilepsy, hemiplegia(paralysis of half of one's body), facial paralysis, tetanus, rheumatism numbness, rheumatic arthralgia pain, migraine (migraine headaches) and aching all over the head, dentalgia (toothache), epicophosis (deaf), sore and ulcer, urticaria and sores (measles and sores), carbuncle swelling sores poison, scrofula (lymphoid tuberculosis), superficial nodule (sucutaneous nodule), burn, stubborn dermatitis, snake bite, etc.
Administration of Scorpio (Quán Xiē):
Administration Guide of Scorpio (Quán Xiē)
①.Internally:3~6 grams; ②.water decoction, 0.5~2 qian (about 1.5~6 grams), Internally:water decoction, Quanxie 0.8~1.5 qian (about 2.4~4.5 grams), Xiewei 3~5 fen (about 0.9~1.5 grams);or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,2~5 grams;prepare to ground herb powder and prepare to pill, powder,0.5~1 grams each time;Xiewei 1/3 dosage of Quanxie. Externally:prpper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, mix and blend, prepare an ointment, or infusing in oil and smear.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Scorpio should be forbidden using during pregnancy. The herb Scorpio should not be used with snail.