Introduction of Ci Wu Jia:Thorny Acanthopanax Root, Siberian Ginseng or Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Thorny Acanthopanax Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Thorny Acanthopanax Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi(Thorny Acanthopanax Root).

Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Cì Wǔ Jiā.
 English Name: Thorny Acanthopanax Root, Siberian Ginseng.
 Latin Name: Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi.
 Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes pungent, slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi is the dried root and rhizome of Acanthopanax senticosus( Maxim.) Harms., it is used to replenish Qi, strengthen the spleen, tonify the kidney, and induce tranquilization for the treatment of general weakness, anorexia, aching back and knees, insomnia and dream-disturbed sleep. The herb is commonly known as Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi, Thorny Acanthopanax Root, Siberian Ginseng, Cì Wǔ Jiā.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi(Thorny Acanthopanax Root) as the dry root or rhizoma and root bark of the Araliaceae family plant species (1). Acanthopanax senticosus( Maxim.) Harms. It is a plant of the Acanthopanax Miq. genus, the Araliaceae family(ginseng, ivy, aralia family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms.

 Acanthopanax senticosus Rupr.Maxim.Harms.:drawing of plant Botanical description: The Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms., is a plant of the Araliaceae family (ginseng, ivy, aralia family) and Eleutherococcus genus, it is commonly known as "Acanthopanax senticosus", or "Eleutherococcus senticosus", or "Siberian Ginseng", or "Ci Wu Jia", Shrubs, the plant grows up to 1~6 meters tall; branches are usually numerous, one or two years old, usually densely thorned, sparsely spurred or spiny only on nodes; straight and slender, needle-shaped, downward, base is not swollen, left over after leaving shaped spines, 5 leaflets, 3 thin; petiole is often sparsely finely thorned, 3~10 cm long; leaf blade is papery, elliptic-obovate or oblong, 5~13 cm long, 3~7 cm wide, tip is acuminate, base is broadly cuneate, rough on top, dark green, with coarse hairs on veins, light green at lower part, pubescence on veins, sharply serrated edges, 6~7 pairs of lateral veins, distinct on both sides, inconspicuous reticulation leaflets are 0.5~2.5 cm long, brown pubescent, sometimes with thorns.

 Umbrella is indistinct, or 2~6 sparse panicles, 2~4 cm in diameters, with many flowers; pedicels are 5~7 cm long, glabrous; pedicels are 1~2 cm long, glabrous or basally slightly hairy; flowers are violet-yellow; calyx is glabrous, margin is subentire or inconspicuous 5-dentate; 5 petals, ovate, 2 mm long; 5 stamens, 1.5~2 mm long; 5 ovary locular, the styles all form a column.

 Fruit is spherical or ovoid, 5-sided, black, 7~8 mm in diameter, persistent style is 1.5~1.8 mm long. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from August to October.

 Acanthopanax senticosus Rupr.Maxim.Harms.:growing plant Ecological Environment: The Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms., grows in forests or thickets, at the area with an altitude of several hundred meters to 2,000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the north, northwest, northeast area of China.

 Growth characteristics: The Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. Maxim.) Harms., likes warm and humid climate, cold-resistant and bear light shade. Should choose sunny, deep humus layer, soil slightly acidic sandy loam.

 Thorny Acanthopanax Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The rhizome of Acanthopanax senticosus is nodular and irregular cylindrical, with branches, its diameter is 1.4~4.2 cm, the surface is gray-brown, with longitudinal wrinkles. There are often dense horizontal wrinkles at the bends. The long lenticels spread horizontally, slightly protruding, light in color. The root of Acanthopanax senticosus is cylindrical, mostly are twisted, 3.5~12 cm long, and 0.3~1.5 cm in diameter; The surface is grayish-brown or dark brown, coarse and rough, with obvious wrinkles, the cortex is thin, some peeling, and the peeling part is grayish-yellow. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is yellow-white, fibrous. The herb has a special aromatic fragrance, it tastes slightly pungent, slightly bitter, and puckery.

 Acanthopanacis Senticosi:segments of stem The stem of Acanthopanax senticosus is long cylindrical, multi-branched, different in length, the diameter is 0.5~2 cm. The surface is light gray, the old branches are grayish brown, with longitudinal fissures and no thorns; Young branches are yellowish-brown, small thorns grow densely on it. The texture of the stem is firm and hard, not easy to break, the cortex of the fracture surface is thin, yellowish-white, the wood part is broad, light yellow, there is pith in the center. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly pungent.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.effects on the central nervous system; ②.effect on non-specific stimulation, mainly including anti-fatigue effect, anti-hypoxia effect, anti-high and low-temperature effect, Anti-centrifuge effect and anti-radiation effect, anti-stress effect, detoxification effect; ③.anti-aging effect; ④.affect the immune function; ⑤.anti-tumor effect; ⑥.anti-inflammatory effect; ⑦.effect on the cardiovascular system; ⑧.inhibition of platelet aggregation; ⑨.effect on the endocrine system; ⑩. Effect on metabolism and tissue regeneration; ⑾.antimicrobial and antiviral effect: acanthopanax alcohol extract or water decoction has an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus alba, the alcohol extract has a certain antibacterial effect on Neisseriaceae and Escherichia coli; ⑿.effects on the respiratory system.

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorating Qi and benefit the spleen, invigorating the kidney and strong waist, invigorating the kidney and calm the nerves (relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization), promoting blood circulation for removing the obstruction in collaterals. It is indicated for Qi deficiency of spleen and lung, spleen deficiency and feebleness (deficiency of spleen, lack of strength), weakness and feebleness, Qi deficiency and edema puffiness, anorexia (inappetence, lack of appetite), insomnia and dreaminess (lose sleep, many dreams), amnesia (poor memory), deficiency of both the heart and spleen, deficiency of both the lung and kidney, chronic cough and dyspnea due to deficiency, kidney deficiency and waist and knee pain, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, thoracic obstruction and pains, kidney deficiency and physical weakness, infantile retardation of walking, wind-cold-dampness arthralgia (anemofrigid-damp arthralgia, or wind-cold-wetness type of arthralgia), swelling pain from a fall injury, etc.

 Administration of Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi (Cì Wǔ Jiā): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Acanthopanacis Senticosi (Cì Wǔ Jiā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:9~27 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 6~15 grams, or prepared to pill, powder;infusing in wine. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick;or mash the fresh herb and apply stick.

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