Introduction of Tai Zi Shen:Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root or Radix Pseudostellariae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax ex Pax et Hoffm., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Pseudostellariae(Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root).

Radix Pseudostellariae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Tài Zǐ Shēn.
 English Name: Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Pseudostellariae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature,tastes sweet,slightly bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Pseudostellariae is the dried tuberous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla(Miq.)Pax ex Pax et Hoffm., used similarly to Radix Codonopsis, Tangshen, less active as a tonic, but more active in promoting the production of body fluids. The herb is commonly known as Radix Pseudostellariae, Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root, Tài Zǐ Shēn.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Radix Pseudostellariae (Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root) as the dried tuberous root of the species (1). Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax ex Pax et Hoffm. It is a plant of the Pseudostellaria Pax genus, the Caryophyllaceae family (carnation, pink family) of the Centrospermae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax ex Pax et Hoffm.

 Pseudostellaria heterophylla Miq.Pax ex Pax et Hoffm.:growing plants in field Botanical description: The plant is also known as P.rhaphanorhiza (Helmsl.) Pax., commonly known as Tài Zǐ Shēn, or Hái ér Shēn (means baby ginseng). A perennial herb, the plant grows to 15~20 cm tall. The underground tuberous root is succulent, orthotropous and fusiform (spindle-shaped), fibrous roots sparsely grow around. Stems are upright, solitary, and unbranched, the lower part is purplish, nearly square, the upper part is green, cylindrical, has conspicuous enlarged nodes, smooth and glabrous. Simple leaves are opposite; cauline leaves on the lower part of the stem are the smallest, leaf blades are oblanceolate, the apex is pointed, the base is attenuated and forms a stalk, entire, gradually turns bigger upward, the leaf on the tip of the stem is biggest, usually in two pairs and closely connected and form verticillate 4-leaves, ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 4-9 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is attenuated and turns to petiole, upper part is glabrous, veins on leaf back surface has sparse hairs, edge is slightly undulate.

 Flowers are in 2 types, 1~3 flowers, axillary or cymose; flowers near to ground are small, and atretic flower, pedicels are purple and pubescent, 4 sepals, the leaf back is purple, the edge is white and membraneous, has no petals; apical flowers on top of stems are bigger and flowering, peduncles are thin, 1-2 cm long, or up to 4 cm long, has pubescence, flowers are upright sometimes, pendulous after flowering, 5 sepals, lanceolate, green, back surface and edges has long pilose; 5 flower petals, white, the apex is shallow serrated 2-lobed or blunt; 10 stamens; the ovary is oval (egg-shaped), 3 styles.

 Capsularfruits are subsphaeroidal, containing few seeds, seeds are brown, oblate form (disc-shaped) or oblong-reniform, and have verrucous protrusions. Its flowering period is from April to May, the fruiting period is from May to June.

 Pseudostellaria heterophylla Miq.Pax ex Pax et Hoffm.:growing plants in field Ecological Environment: The plant grows in areas at altitudes of 800~2,700 meters above sea level. It grows in forests and cracks in the rock on hillsides or mountain slopes, in the dank valley under the forest. The plant is distributed in the northern area, northwest, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Pseudostellaria heterophylla prefers a warm and moist climate, strong cold resistance, is afraid of high temperatures, avoids strong light, afraid of waterlogging. When the temperature is about 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), the ground temperature is about 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), it sprouts, and root growth is slow, when the temperature is over 30 °C (Celsius, or 86 degrees Fahrenheit) its growth stops. The plant is afraid of strong light exposure, and easily dies in the sun or colder climate. It can safely pass the winter at -17 °C (Celsius, or 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit). It can germinate and take root at low temperatures. The plant grows well under dank and wet conditions. It is appropriate to choose shady and moist mountain fields with deep soil layers, and loose and fertile, humus-rich sandy loam for cultivation, should not choose low-lying land, saline-alkali soil, clay soil, or barren soil should not be chosen for cultivation. It is better to choose sweet potato, vegetables as foregoing crop, intercropping with corn.

 Hterophylly Flasestarwort Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The tuberous roots are slender fusiform (spindle-shaped) or slender strip-shaped, slightly curved, 2~8 cm or 3~10 cm long, a few are up to 12 cm long, 2~6 mm in diameter, with extremely short stem base or bud marks remaining at the apical end, the lower part is gradually attenuated and caudate (tail-shaped). The surface is yellowish-white, grayish-yellow to khaki or yellowish-brown, smooth, with slightly irregular fine longitudinal wrinkles and lateral sags, with fibrous root marks in the sags. The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easy to break, the fracture surface is flat, off-white or yellowish-brown on the around part, light yellowish-white in the center, and keratose; The sun-dried roots are off-white and mealiness. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet. The herb of a better grade has thick stripes, yellow and white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-fatigue; ②.anti-stress effect; ③.promoting immunity and prolonging life; ④.Pseudostellarinoside A has antiviral effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Replenishing Qi to invigorate the spleen, tonifying the lung, Replenishing Qi to promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, promoting the production of body fluid and nourishing the lung. It is indicated for spleen deficient and tired, spleen and stomach weakness, mentally fatigued (spiritlessness), loss of appetite, lassitude, spleen deficiency and poor appetite, lung deficiency and cough, weakness after illness, insufficiency of Qi and Yin (deficiency of both vital energy and Yin), hurt of Qi and Yin, spontaneous perspiration and thirsty, palpitation and spontaneous perspiration, spontaneous perspiration and short breath, lung dryness and dry cough, dry cough and less phlegm, Qi deficiency and body fluid deficiency in the late stage of the warm disease, internal heat and thirst, neurasthenia (neurosism), palpitations and insomnia, dizziness and amnesia(vertigo and poor memory), forgetfulness, infantile summer fever (chronic fever in infants and young children characterized by chronic fever, thirst, polyuria, no or little sweating.), etc.

 Administration of Radix Pseudostellariae (Tài Zǐ Shēn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Pseudostellariae (Tài Zǐ Shēn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 9~30 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~4 qian (about 6~12 grams); ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams.

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