Introduction of Chuan Xiong:Szechwan Lovage Rhizome or Rhizome Chuanxiong.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Szechwan Lovage Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Szechwan Lovage Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizome Chuanxiong(Szechwan Lovage Rhizome).

Rhizome Chuanxiong:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chuān Xiōnɡ.
 English Name: Szechwan Lovage Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizome Chuanxiong.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizome Chuanxiong is the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., used (1).to activate blood circulation and promote the flow of Qi for the treatment of irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and coronary heart disease, and (2).to dispel wind and alleviate pain for relieving headache and rheumatalgia. The herb is commonly known as Rhizome Chuanxiong, Szechwan Lovage Rhizome, Chuān Xiōnɡ.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong) as the dry root and rhizome of the Apiaceae family plant species (1). Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. It is a plant of the Ligusticum L. genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) of the Apiales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.

 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort is a plant of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family) and Ligusticum genus, it is also known as L. wallichii auct.non Franch., it is commonly known as Chuan Xiong, or Ligusticum wallichii Franch. A perennial herb, it grows up to 40~70 cm tall. The whole plant has a strong aroma. The rhizomes are developed, forming irregular nodular fist-shaped lumps, and have many fibrous roots. Stems are upright, cylindrical, and hollow, with vertical and straight grooves on the surface, nodes on the lower part of the stem are enlarged to a disc shape (plate shape), and nodes above the middle part are not enlarged. Cauline leaves on the lower part of the stem are petiolate, petioles are 3~10 cm long, base expanded into a sheath; outline of leaf blades is ovate-triangular, 12~15 cm long, 10~15 cm wide, 3-4- ternate pinnatisect, pinnae are in 4~5 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, 6~7 cm long, 5~6 cm wide, terminally lobes are linear-lanceolate to ovate-oblong, 2~5 mm long, 1~2 mm wide, there are small points on the tip, sparse pubescence on veins; cauline leaves on the upper stem is gradually simplified.

 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.:growing shrub Compound umbels (composite umbels) are apical or lateral; 3~6 phyllary (involucral bracts), linear, 0.5~2.5 cm long; 7~20 or 7~24 spokes, unequal in length, 2~4 cm long; umbellule (umbellet) has 10~24 flowers; 2~7 bracteoles (bractlets), linear, slightly purplish, pubescent, 3~5 mm long; Calyx teeth are sterile; flower petals are white, obovate to elliptic, apex has mucronate protrusions, recurved; 5 stamens, anthers are viridescent (pea green); 2 styles, 2~3 mm long, retroflexed downward.

 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.:growing shrub The young fruits are oblate or flattened, 2~3 mm long, and about 1 mm wide; there are 2~3 vittae (oil ducts) in the side ridge groove, and there are 6~8 vittae (oil ducts) on the commissure. Its flowering period is from July to August, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.:plant and herb Ecological Environment: Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort is mainly cultivated and rarely seen in a wild field. This species is mainly cultivated in the southwest area, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and northern, and northwest areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant ligusticum chuanxiong prefers a warm climate, abundant rainfall, and sufficient sunshine environment, is slightly tolerant to drought, afraid of shade and waterlogging. It is appropriate to choose fields with deep soil layers, loose and fertile, well-drained, neutral, or slightly acidic sandy loam for cultivation, and better not to choose cold sandy soil with too much sand, or yellow mud with too heavy viscosity, white eel mud, wet field, and so on, should avoid continuous cropping.

 Szechwan Lovage Rhizome:herb photo Characters of herbs: The rhizome of the herb is an irregular nodular fist-shaped lump, 1.5~7 cm in diameter. The surface is tawny (yellow brown) to yellowish-brown, or brown, coarse and rough, shriveled, with many parallel protuberant ring nodes; There are quasi-circular concave pit-like stem marks on the top, and many tiny nodular root marks on the lower side and ring nodes. The texture of the herb is solid and firm, not easy to break, the fracture surface is yellow-white or sallow (grayish yellow), with undulated ring-shaped cambium (fringe pattern cambium rings), yellow-brown oil spots or oil chambers scattered on the whole rhizome. The herb has a strong and special aroma, it tastes bitter, pungent, slightly back sweet, and slightly numbing tongue. The herb of a better grade is big and full, the texture is solid and firm, and the fracture surface is yellow and white, oily, and with a strong fragrance.

 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.dilating coronary arteries, improving microcirculation; ②.inhibiting platelet aggregation; ③.preventive effect on ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

 Medicinal efficacy: Activating blood circulation and promoting the circulation of Qi, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis, promoting the circulation of Qi and expelling stagnation, dispelling pathogenic wind and removing dampness, dispel wind and relieve pain. It is indicated for cephalea and dizziness due to wind and cold, thoracic obstruction and cardialgia, hypochondriac pain and abdominal pain, stabbing pain in chest and hypochondria, swelling pain of fall injury, cephalea (headache), cephalea and dizziness, rheumatic arthralgia, cold arthralgia and spasm of muscle, irregular menstruation, menoschesis and dysmenorrhea, menoschesis, dystocia (difficult labor), abdominal mass and abdominal pain, abdominal mass and lumps, swelling and ulcer, traumatic injury, etc.

 Administration of Rhizome Chuanxiong (Chuān Xiōnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizome Chuanxiong (Chuān Xiōnɡ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1~2 qian (about 3~6 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams;prepare to finely ground herb powder,1~1.5 grams each time;or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder and sprinkle;or mouthwash with water decoction.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: should not combine the herb Rhizome Chuanxiong with Rhizoma Coptidis, Fructus Corni, Radix euphorbiae lantu, Saltpeter, Talcum, Black False Hellebore.




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