Introduction of Xian He Cao:Hairvein Agrimonia Herb or Herba Agrimoniae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Hairvein Agrimonia Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Hairvein Agrimonia Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Agrimoniae(Hairvein Agrimonia Herb).

Herba Agrimoniae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiān Hè Cǎo.
 English Name: Hairvein Agrimonia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Agrimoniae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, bitter, puckery.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Agrimoniae is the dried aerial part of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., used (1).as an astringent hemostatic for treating various kinds of bleeding including bloody dysentery, and (2).to counteract toxins and reduce swelling for treating boils and sores. It is also used for treating malaria. The herb is commonly known as Herba Agrimoniae, Hairvein Agrimonia Herb, Hairyvein Agrimonia Herb and Bud, Xiān Hè Cǎo(literally it means "the Crane Herb").

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Agrimoniae (Hairvein Agrimonia Herb) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. It is a plant of the Agrimonia genus, the Rosaceae family (rose family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.

 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.:drawing of whole plant Botanical description: Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., is commonly known as Lóng Yá Cǎo (means Dragon's Sprout Grass). A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 30~120 cm high. Roots are often tuberous, surrounded by many lateral roots (branch roots), the rhizome is short, the base often has 1 to several underground buds. Stems grow to 30~120 cm tall, sparsely pilose and pubescent, the lower part is sparsely hirsute.

 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.:growing shrub Odd-pinnate leaves are alternate, stipules (peraphyllum) are sickle-shaped, rarely oval (egg-shaped), apex is sharp pointed or acuminate, edge has sharp serrate or lobes, rarely entire; lobules are of a big type or small type, grows interstitially on rhachis, big lobules are in 3~4 pairs, rarely in 2 pairs, reduce to 3 lobules at the upper part, lobules are subsessile, obovate to obovate-lanceolate, 1.5~5 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, the apex is sharp-pointed to blunt, rarely acuminate, the base is cuneate, the edge has sharp-pointed teeth or crenature, the upper surface is green, sparsely pubescent, the under surface is pea green (pale green), leaf veins are covered with reptant pubescence, rarely fall off and glabrous, has conspicuous glandular dots.

 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.:flowering plant 1 racemose or 2~3 racemose grow apically on stem tip, inflorescence axis (floral axis) is pubescent, peduncles are 1~5 mm long, pubescent; flower bracts are usually deeply 3-parted, lobes are band-shaped, bracteoles (bractlets) are opposite, oval (egg-shaped), entire or split edges; flowers are 6~9 mm in diameter, 5 sepals (calyx lobes), triangular-ovate; 5 flower petals, oblong (long circular), yellow; 5~15 stamens; 2 styles, filamentose (filiform), stigma is capitate.

 Achenes are obovate-conical, with 10 ribs outside, sparsely pilose, several layers of hooked spines grow on the top, upright when it is young, converging inward when it is mature, the total length with spines is 7~8 mm, 3~4 mm in diameter at the widest part. Its flower period and fruiting period are from May to December.

 Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.:growing shrub Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the wasteland, hillsides, streamsides, roadsides, grassland, bush, forest edge, and open forest. It is distributed in most areas of China. It produces mainly in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, northern areas, the Zhujiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., has a strong adaptability to climates, and it is tolerant to chilliness. It can be planted in general soils, and if choose fertile sandy loam for cultivation can increase yield. It grows fast in the rainy and high-temperature months, July to August. The thousand-grain weight of seeds is 13.9 grams.

 Hairvein Agrimonia Herb:herb photo Characters of herbs: The whole herb is 50~100 cm long, with white fluff. The lower part of the stem is cylindrical, 0.4~0.6 cm in diameter, reddish brown, and the upper part is square column-shaped, slightly concave on four sides, with olive-brown (greenish-brown) hairs, has longitudinal grooves and ridges, and nodes; the herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard, easily broken, the fracture surface is hollow. Odd-pinnate leaves are alternate, sap green (dark green), shriveled and curly; the texture of the herb is crisp and fragile; There are two types of leaves, big type and small type, which grows interstitially on rhachis, and the apical lobules are bigger. The intact lobules are oval (egg-shaped) or oblong oval after unfolding, with a tapering apex, the base is cuneate (wedge-shaped), and serrated edges. 2 stipules (peraphyllum), amplexicaul (stem-clasping), obliquely ovate. Racemes are thin and long; The flowers are 0.6~0.9 cm in diameter, the lower part of the calyx is tubular, the upper part of the calyx tube has hooked spines, and the apex is 5-lobed; petals are yellow. Achenes are 0.7~0.8 cm long, and 0.3~0.4 cm in diameter. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade is tender and leafy (foliose).

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anticoagulation and antithrombosis; ②.prolong bleeding time, plasma thromboplastin time, and inhibit the aggregation of ADP and collagen in platelet-rich plasma; ③.anti-tumor; ④.anti-parasite; ⑤.antibacterial effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Hemostasis with astringents, preventing attack or recurrence of malaria, stop dysentery, replenish stomach, detoxification, kill parasites. It is indicated for hemoptysis (cough up blood), hememesis (spitting blood), hematuria (blood in urine), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, dysentery of red and white, malaria, weakness and internal lesion caused by overexertion, uterine bleeding, uterine bleeding and morbid leukorrhea, pruritus vulvae and morbid leukorrhea, carbuncle, swelling, sore poison, bleeding due to falling and trauma injury, etc.

 Administration of Herba Agrimoniae (Xiān Hè Cǎo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Agrimoniae (Xiān Hè Cǎo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams. Externally:proper amount; ②.Internally:water decoction,3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams), fresh herb 0.5~1 liang (about 15~30 grams), or extract juice, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams, big dosage could be up to 30 grams;or prepared to powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick, or prepare paste and smear stick.

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