Introduction of Zhen Zhu Mu:Nacre or Concha Margaritifera Usta.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Nacre, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its source three animal species, with a detailed introduction to the features of the herb Nacre, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Concha Margaritifera Usta(Nacre).

Concha Margaritifera Usta:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zhēn Zhū Mǔ.
 English Name: Nacre.
 Latin Name: Concha Margaritifera Usta.
 Property and flavor: cool, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Concha Margaritifera Usta is the calcined shell of certain pearl-yielding shell-fish, Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea), Cristaria plicata (Leach) (family Unionidae), or Pteria martensii (Dunker) (family Pteriidae), used (1).as a settling tranquilizer for the treatment of palpitation, insomnia, mania, and (2).to pacify the liver and subdue exuberant Yang for relieving headache and dizziness. The herb is commonly known as Concha Margaritifera Usta, Nacre, Zhēn Zhū Mǔ.

 Source: Common herbal classic book defined the herb Concha Margaritifera Usta(Nacre) as the shell of bivalve species (1). Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea)., or (2).Cristaria plicata (Leach)., or (3).Pteria martensii (Dunker).These 3 herbal classic book defined species are introduced in the entry "Margarita(Pearl)".

 Nacre:herb photo Characters of herbs: (1).Shell of Hyriopsis cumingii (Lea).: The complete shell is unequilateral quadrangular, yearly rings arranged in concentric rings. The rear dorsal brim protruding upward, composes a big triangular veliform hind wing. The pallium of the shell's inner surface is conspicuous; the marks of the front adductor muscle are oval (egg-shaped), and the marks of the rear adductor muscle are slightly triangular. The left and right shells have 2 pseudocardinal teeth, and the left shell has 2 long-strip-shaped dens lateralis; glossy. The texture of the shell is firm and hard, and it has a slightly fishy smell and a mild taste.

 (2).Shell of Cristaria plicata (Leach).: The complete shell is a scalene triangle, and the rear dorsal brim extends upward and composes a big crown. The pallium of the shell's inner surface is conspicuous; the marks of the front adductor muscle are big, cuneate (wedge-shaped), the marks of the rear adductor muscle are irregular oval, there are longitudinal ribs and concave grooves under the posterior lateral tooth corresponding to the shell surface. The left and right shells both have 1 short and slightly thick posterior lateral tooth and 1 thin and weak anterior lateral tooth, all have no pseudocardinal tooth.

 Nacre:herb photo (3).Shell of Pteria martensii (Dunker): The complete shell is obliquely square, the posterior ear is big, the anterior ear is small, the dorsal brim is flat and straight, the ventrolateral edge is circular, and the growth lines are extremely dense, flaky. The marks of the adductor muscle are big, oblong, and have one protuberant long cardinal tooth.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.effect of calcium supplement; ②.increase the heartbeat amplitude of an isolated toad heart, reduce the intestinal tension of an isolated rabbit intestine; ③.temporary diuretic effect on rabbits.

 Medicinal efficacy: Calm the liver, checking exuberance of yang, calm the nerves (relieve uneasiness of mind and body tranquilization), stopping convulsion (calm the frightened), removing heat from the liver, improving eyesight and eliminating nebula (improving acuity of vision, eliminate slight corneal opacity), hemostasis (stanch bleeding). It is indicated for cephalea (headache), dizziness, head dizziness, palpitation, insomnia (lose sleep), palpitation, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), red eyes and nebula, liver heat and red eyes, dim eyesight, nebula (slight corneal opacity), mania (madness), epilepsy, vomiting blood, epistasis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), metrorrhagia (flooding), etc.

 Administration of Concha Margaritifera Usta (Zhēn Zhū Mǔ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Concha Margaritifera Usta (Zhēn Zhū Mǔ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:10~25 grams, decoct earlier; ②.Internally:water decoction, 0.3~1 liang (about 9~30 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~30 grams, cracked and decoct earlier; or prepare to finely ground herb powder,1.5~3 grams each time;or prepare to pill, powder.

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