Introduction of Xian Mao:Common Curculigo Rhizome or Rhizoma Curculiginis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Common Curculigo Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Common Curculigo Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Curculiginis(Common Curculigo Rhizome).

Rhizoma Curculiginis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiān Máo.
 English Name: Common Curculigo Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Curculiginis.
 Property and flavor: heat or warm in nature, tastes pungent, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Curculiginis is the dried rhizome of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., used to warm the kidney, reinforce Yang, strengthen the tendons and bones, and dispel cold-damp for the treatment of aching back and knees with intolerance of cold, impotence, enuresis, stubborn arthralgia, chronic diarrhea. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Curculiginis, Common Curculigo Rhizome, Xiān Máo.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Rhizoma Curculiginis(Xian Mao) as the rhizome(rhizoma rootstalk) of the Amaryllidaceae family plant species (1). Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. It is a plant of the Curculigo genus, the Amaryllidaceae family (amaryllis family) of the Liliflorae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.:growing plant Botanical description: The Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., is a plant of the Amaryllidaceae family (amaryllis family) and Curculigo genus, it is commonly known as "Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.", "Curculigo orchioides", or "Xian Mao", "Di Zong, Du Mao, Shan Dang Shen, Xian Mao Shen, Hainan Shen". Perennial herb. The rhizome is nearly cylindrical straight, about 1 cm in diameter, up to 30 cm long, brown skin; Fibrous root is often tufted, endoplasmic, with annular transverse veins, up to 6 cm long; The upper stalk is not obvious.

 Leaves are basal; Leaf blade is linear, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, 10~45 cm long, 5~25 mm wide, apex is long acuminate, base down into a stalk, veins are obvious, both surfaces are sparsely pubescent or glabrous.

 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.:drawing of plant parts The flower stems are very short, 67 cm long, mostly hidden in the base of the sheath petiole, also hairy; Bracts are lanceolate, 2.5~5 cm long, membranous, ciliate; Raceme is more or less corymbose, usually with 4~6 flowers; Flower is yellow, ca. 1 cm in diameter, lower is cylinder linear, upper 6-lobed, lobes are lanceolate, 8~12 mm long, 2.5~3 mm wide, abaxial surface of outer wheel sometimes grows pubescent; 6 stamens, about 1/2 of perianth lobes, filaments are 1.5~2.5 mm, anthers are 2~4 mm; Stigma is 3-lobed, divided part is longer than style, ovary is long and narrow, apex is with long beak, continuous beak up to 7.5 mm, by sparsely hairy.

 The berry is nearly spindly, 1.2~1.5 cm long, about 6 mm wide, with a long beak at the apex. Seeds are bright black, with longitudinal relief on the surface, beak. The flowering period is from April to September.

 Herb Trait Identification: Stem is cylindrical, slightly curved, 3~10 cm long, 4~8 mm in diameter. The surface is dark brown or tan, coarsely made, with longitudinal furrows and horizontal wrinkles and fine pore-like coarse root scars. Hard and brittle, easily broken, slightly flat cross-section, slightly corneous, light brown or tan, near the center of a darker color, and a dark ring. The herb has a slightly fragrant smell, slightly bitter taste, pungent. It is better to be thick and dark brown on the skin.

 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.:fresh herb Ecological Environment: The Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., grows in forest and grassland or barren slopes with an altitude below 1,600 meters. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers warm climate, slightly resistant to drought and shade. It is advisable to cultivate in the sandy loam with deep, loose, and fertile soil. It is not advisable to plant in a down fold or bottom land.

 Common Curculigo Rhizome:herb photo Characters of herbs: The rhizome is cylindrical, slightly curved, with a length of 3~10 cm, the diameter is 4~8 mm or 0.4~1.2 cm. The surface is dark brown or chocolate-brown, coarse and rough, with longitudinal grooves, transverse wrinkles, and pore-like thick root marks. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is slightly flat, slightly keratinous, light brown or chocolate-brown, dark near the center with a dark ring. The herb has a slight fragrance, it tastes slightly bitter and pungent. The herb of better grade has thick strips, the surface is black and brown.

 The Curculigo Gaertn, is a genus below the Hypoxidaceae family, about 10~20 species, it is distributed in tropical regions, in China, there are about 7 species. Herbs of the genus are perennial, with short rhizomes; Leaves are basal, long, folded; Flower stalks are long or short; Flowers are usually unisexual, arranged in dense capitate or spikes, with bracts; Perianth often extending into a linear tube on an ovary, 6-lobed; Subovary, 3 locules; Berries, not cracking, more or less beak. There are about 10~20 species of the genus distributed in the world, and 7 are distributed in China. The genus plants are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, South America and Oceania, grow in forests or wet places, like warm damp environment, bear winter temperature 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), and better in soil rich in humus loose sandy loam, plants in the genus can be potted to view leaves, for landscape values.

 Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.:fresh herb In China, the Curculigo Gaertn genus plants could be classified into 2 sects, one is Sect. Molineria (Colla) Benth., including 5 species and known as:(1).Curculigo breviscapa., (2).Curculigo capitulata., (3).Curculigo crassifolia (Baker) Hook.f., (4).Curculigo gracilis (Wall. ex Kurz) Hook. f., (5).Curculigo sinensis.; Another is Sect. Curculigo., including 2 species and known as:(1).Curculigo glabrescens (Ridl.) Merr., (2).Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

 Don't look down on this humble weed just because it looks like a seedling, it can help to stimulate the Yang Qi in the body, in particular, can help men to protect the kidney. Modern studies have shown that it has androgen-like and adaptive effects, anti-aging effect, and enhance immune function.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-hypoxia and high-temperature resistance effect on mice; ②.prolong the sleep time of pentobarbital sodium on mice; ③.delay the incubation period of convulsion caused by tetrahexin in mice; ④.inhibit the swelling inflammation of auricle caused by croton oil in mice.

 Medicinal efficacy: Invigorating kidney Yang, strengthening the bones and muscles, dispellieg cold and dampness. It is indicated for asynodia (impotentia) and cold sperm, aconuresis (incontinence of urine), metrorrhagia and metrostaxis, cold pain in heart and abdomen, epigastric cold pain, cold and numbness in waist and feet, cold and pain of waist and knees, aching pain of waist and knees, weakness and feebleness of tendons and bones, spasm of lower limbs, Yang deficiency and cold diarrhea, ulcer, scrofula(lymphoid tuberculosis), menopausal syndrome, etc.  

 Administration of Rhizoma Curculiginis (Xiān Máo): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Curculiginis (Xiān Máo)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~10 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, or prepared to pill, powder;or infusing in wine. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:the herb Rhizoma Curculiginis should not be prepared with ironware.

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