Introduction of He Tao Ren:Walnut Seed or Semen Jugalandis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Walnut Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Juglans regia L., and another usable plant species: ②.Juglans nigra., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Walnut Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Jugalandis(Walnut Seed).

Semen Jugalandis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Hé Táo Rén, or Hú Táo Rén
 English Name: Walnut Seed, or Walnut Kernel.
 Latin Name: Semen Jugalandis.
 Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Jugalandis is the dried ripe seed of Juglans regia L., used to tonify the kidney and lung for treating aching back and knees, cough and dyspnea of deficiency-cold type, seminal emission, and impotence. The herb is commonly known as Semen Jugalandis, Walnut Seed, Hé Tɑo Rén.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Walnut Kernel(Hu Tao Ren) as the kernel of the Juglandaceae family plant species (1).Juglans regia L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Walnut Kernel(Hu Tao Ren) as the kernel of the Juglandaceae family plant species (1). Juglans regia L. or (2). Juglans nigra. They are plant species of the Juglans genus, the Juglandaceae family(Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb family) of the Juglandales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Juglans regia L.

 Juglans regia L.:growing tree Botanical description: The Juglans regia L., is a plant of the Juglandaceae family(Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb family) and Juglans genus, it is commonly known as "Hú Táo" or "Hé Táo". Deciduous trees, the tree grows up to 20~25 meters high. The bark is grayish-white, smooth when young, shallow and longitudinal when old. Branchlets have short glandular hairs with obvious leaf aches and lenticels; winter buds have bud scales; pith is white and lamellate. Odd-pinnate compound leaves, alternate, 40~50 cm long, 5~9 lobules, sometimes 13, the apex is often larger, elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6~15 cm long, 3~6 cm wide, apex is obtuse or pointed, base is oblique, nearly circular, entire, dark green surface, shiny, pale green on the back, with 11~9 pairs of lateral veins, a cluster of pubescent within veins. Flowers are unisexual, male and female, bloom at the same time with leaves, male inflorescences are axillary, pendulous, 5~10 cm long, flowers are small and dense, male flowers are with 1 bract, oblong, 2 small bracts, long ovate, 1~4 tepals, all glandular hairs, 6~30 stamens; female inflorescences are spikelike, upright, grow at the tip of young shoots, usually with 1-3 female flowers, 3 total sepals, long ovate, adnate in the ovary, flowers grow along with ovary; perianth is 4-lobed, lobes are linear, higher than sepals; the ovary is inferior, 2-carpeted, style is short, stigma is 2-lobed, feathery, bright red. The fruit is nearly spherical, drupelike, 4~6 cm in diameter, exocarp is green, developed from sepals and perianths, spotted, the mesocarp is fleshy, irregularly dehiscent, endocarp bony, uneven surface, 2 longitudinal ribs, apex is with short tips, inner rind wall with crevices and creases, the septum is thinner, no cavities inside. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from September to October.

 Juglans regia L.:fruiting tree Ecological Environment: The Juglans regia L., grows in mountainous and hilly areas. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China and cultivated from south to northern provinces, this species was native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China. There are 7 genera and 28 species of walnut plants in China. It is now possible to determine the four species native to China, Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Juglans cathayensis Dode, Iron walnut, and Hebei walnut. The largest forests are in Kyrgyzstan, where trees occur in extensive, nearly pure walnut forests at an altitude of 1,000~2,000 meters (3000 to 7000 ft) above sea level, notably at Arslanbob in Jalal-Abad Province. It is widely cultivated across Asia, America, and Europe.

 Juglans regia L.:walnuts Growth characteristics: The walnut trees prefer to warm and afraid of frost, grow on hillside and hilly area with an altitude of 400~1,800 meters above sea level, the flowering period is May and the fruiting period is October. The tree prefers to fertile, sandy loam and is common seem in the deep soil layers on both sides of mountainous valleys. At present, agricultural cultivation is generally in low hills with an altitude of about 200 meters above sea level.

 Walnut Kernel:herb photo Characters of herbs: The complete kernel is spherical, consisting of two cotyledons, the diameter is 1~3 cm or 2~3 cm, with a triangular radicle at one end. Usually, the two valves are split or broken into irregular blocks with wrinkled grooves of different sizes. The seed coat is thin, light brown to dark brown, with dark longitudinal veins. Cotyledons are yellowish-white, the inside part is yellow or milky white after being broken, oily, it has a slight fragrance, it tastes sweet, the seed coat tastes slightly puckery and bitter. The herb of better grade is big and full, the fracture surface is white or milky, and rich in oil.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antihistamine spasmodic effect on bronchial smooth muscle; ②.antitussive effect; ③.anticancer effect in mice; ④.affect the synthesis, oxidation, and excretion of cholesterols in vivo.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonifying kidney, replenish the vital essence, warming lung, relieve asthma, moisten intestines, relaxing the bowels. It is indicated for insufficiency of kidney-Yang, lumbago due to deficiency of the kidney, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, low back pain and foot weakness, asynodia and spermatorrhea(impotence and seminal emission), frequent micturition, enuresis (bedwetting), dyspnea with rapid breathing due to chronic cough, asthma cough of deficiency cold, dry feces, dryness of the intestine and constipation, urolithiasis (urolithic stranguria), sore and ulcer, scrofula, etc.

 Administration of Semen Jugalandis(Hé Táo Rén): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Jugalandis(Hé Táo Rén)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 9~15 grams; chewing and take for single prescription, 10~30 grams; or prepare to pill, power. Externally:proper amount,prepare to finely ground herb powder, apply stick.

(2).Juglans nigra.

 Juglans nigra.:fruiting tree Botanical description: The Juglans nigra., is a plant of the Juglandaceae family (Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb family) and Juglans genus, it is also known as American Black Walnut, deciduous trees, the tree grows up to 30 meters high, round crown or cylindrical. Trunk skin is dark brown, with deep longitudinal cracks. Branches are grayish-brown or dark brown, with short hairs, broad triangular buds. Odd-pinnate compound leaves, 15 to 23 leaflets, very short stalks, irregular serrations on margin, glandular hairs on the abaxial surface. The female inflorescences have 2~5 flower clusters. The fruit is spherical, light green, with small protrusions on the surface, and covered with hair. The nuts are round, slightly flat, slightly pointed at the tips, and have irregular deep grooves on the shell surface. The shells are thick and hard to crack.

 Juglans nigra.:fruiting tree The adaptability of black walnut to the soil is also strong. It can grow in various soils with a pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) of 4.6~8.2, but the growth in different soils varies greatly. The best is sandy loam soil or alluvial soil. The soil layer is required to be deep (3 to 4 meters), neutral or slightly acidic, ventilated, and drained.

 The American Black Walnut is one of the best-recognized hardwood forest species in the world and is considered to be a fruit tree species with high economic value in USA (the United States of America). Its wood structure is compact, high mechanical strength, texture, color appearance, and easy processing, suitable for plywood, furniture, craft carving, architectural decoration, and other excellent materials.

 Juglans nigra.:trunk Ecological Environment: The Juglans nigra., grows in mountainous and hilly areas. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the eastern half of USA (the United States of America), also is distributed in other areas of North America and South America, it was introduced widely cultivated in many provinces of China, in many provinces the trial cultivation is superior to the origin.
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