Introduction of Shan Zhu Yu:Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit or Fructus Corni.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Corni(Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit).

Fructus Corni:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Shān Zhū Yú.
 English Name: Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Corni.
 Property and flavor: slightly warm in nature, tastes sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Corni is the dried ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Zucc., used (1).to replenish liver and kidney Yin for the treatment of aching back, weakened knees, vertigo and impotence, and (2).to stop discharge for nocturnal emission, enuresis, abnormal uterine bleeding, and excessive perspiration. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Corni, Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, Common Macrocarpium Fruit, Fruit of Common Macrocarpium, Shān Zhū Yú.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Corni(Shan Zhu Yu) as the dry ripe fruit berry of the Cornaceae family plant species (1). Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. It is a plant of the Macrocarpium genus, the Cornaceae Bercht family (dogwood family) of the Apiales order. There are 14 genera and more than 100 species of Cornaceae family plants. In China, there are 8 genera and more than 50 species of Cornaceae family plants. Natural distribution in the north temperate and subtropical mountainous areas, mainly produced in China, England, USA (the United States of America). In China, it is mainly distributed in cool, moist, leeward mountains and hills in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, with an altitude of 600~1,400 meters. It is suitable for warm and humid climates and has the characteristics of shade resistance, prefer light, and moisture resistance. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

 Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.:fruits on branch Botanical description: The Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., is a plant of the Cornaceae family (dogwood family) and Cornus genus, it is commonly known as "Cornus officinalis", "Common Macrocarpium", "Cornel Dogwood", "Asiatic Cornelian Cherry", "Shān Zhū Yú", it is a deciduous tree or shrub, it grows up to 4~10 meters tall; bark is grayish-brown; branchlets are slender, cylindrical, glabrous or thinly adaxially pubescent. Winter buds are terminal and axillary, ovate to lanceolate, yellowish-brown pubescent. Leaves are opposite, papery, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic, 5.5~10 cm long, 2.5~4.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is broadly cuneate or subrounded, entire, green above, absent hair, light green at the lower part, thinly pubescent white puberulent, veins are densely with brownish brown hairs, midribs are prominent at the upper part, convex at the lower part, subglabrous, lateral veins are 6~7 pairs, arched incurved; petiole is fine cylindrical, 0.6~1.2 cm long, shallowly grooved at the upper part, rounded at the lower part, slightly adaxially puberulous.

 Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.:fruits on branch Umbrellas grow on branches, with 4 sepals, ovate, thickly papery to leathery, ca. 8 mm long, purplish, slightly pubescent on both sides, deciduous after flowering; pedicels stout, ca. 2 mm, slightly gray pubescent; flowers are small, bisexual, flowering before leaves; 4 calyx lobes, broadly triangular, as long as or longer than disk, ca. 0.6 mm, glabrous; 4 petals, ligulate-lanceolate, 3.3 mm long, yellow, outward recurved; 4 stamens, alternate with petals, 1.8 mm long, filaments are subulate, anthers are elliptic, 2-celled; disk-shaped mat-like, glabrous; ovary is inferior, torus obovate, ca. 1 mm, densely appressed pubescent, styles are cylindrical, 1.5 mm long, stigma is truncate; pedicels are slender, 0.5~1 cm long, densely puberulous.

 Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.:fruits on branch Drupe is oblong, 1.2~1.7 cm long, 5~7 mm in diameter, red to purple; nuclear bone, narrow oval, about 12 mm long, with a few irregular ribs. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Characters: The fleshy peels are shriveled, incomplete or flat, about 1.5 cm long and about 0.5 cm wide. The surface of the new herb is purple-red, while the old ones are mostly purple-black and shiny. The pedestals with a shank mark and the top part have a trace of a four-point shape. It is soft and non-breakable. Odorless, sour, and bitter. Seedless, pulp is hypertrophic, color red oil is better.

 Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.:fruiting tree Ecological Environment: The Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., grows in forest edge or forest at an altitude of 400~1,500 meters above sea level, up to 2,100 meters. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China north-central and northwest to southwest and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cornus officinalis prefers a warm and humid climate, prefers light. It is advisable to choose the sandy loam with fertile soil, a deep soil layer, and good drainage or loam for cultivation.

 Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The fleshy pericarp is broken and wrinkled, incomplete or flat, about 1.5 cm long and 0.5~1 cm wide. The surface of the new fruit berry is purple-red but turns purple-black after a long time of storage, shriveled and glossy, sometimes there is a fruit stalk mark on the base and a circular persistent calyx mark on the top part. The texture of the herb is soft and moist, not fragile. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes sour and puckery, slightly bitter. The herb of better grade is seedless, the pulp is fleshy and thick, red and oily.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.increase the level of hepatic glycogen; ②.against adrenaline hyperglycemia; ③.promote cellular immunity, humoral immune function, inhibit the function of mononuclear phagocyte; ④.antishock; ⑤.anti-inflammatory; ⑥.anti-cancer; ⑦.prompt diuresis; ⑧.inhibit platelet aggregation; ⑨.reduce blood viscosity, enhance myocardial contractility, improve the efficiency of the heart, elevate the blood pressure; ⑩.prevent lipodieresis(adipose decompose), etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonify the liver and kidney, collecting essence and Qi, inducing astringency and collecting, consolidate depletion. It is indicated for dizziness, tinnitus (ringing in ears), deaf, dizziness and giddiness, aching pain of waist and knees, impotence (erectile dysfunction), spermatorrhea,enuresis and frequency of micturition, frequent urination, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), morbid leukorrhea, profuse sweating and collapse, hepatic asthenia and alternation of cold and fever, unstoppable abnormal sweating due to general debility, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat, consumptive thirst), shaking of heart and scattered pulse, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Corni (Shān Zhū Yú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Corni (Shān Zhū Yú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams;or prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:The herb Fructus Corni should not be combined with Radix Platycodonis, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, etc.

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