Introduction of Shan Zhu Yu:Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit or Fructus Corni.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Corni(Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit).

dried reddish fruits of Fructus Corni are piled together Pin Yin Name: Shān Zhū Yú.
 English Name: Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Corni.
 Property and flavor: slightly warm in nature, tastes sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Corni is the dried ripe sarcocarp of Cornus officinalis Zucc., used (1).to replenish liver and kidney Yin for the treatment of aching back, weakened knees, vertigo and impotence, and (2).to stop discharge for nocturnal emission, enuresis, abnormal uterine bleeding, and excessive perspiration. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Corni, Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit, Common Macrocarpium Fruit, Fruit of Common Macrocarpium, Shān Zhū Yú.

 small yellow flowers and red berries of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. grow on branches Botanical source: Common herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Corni (Shān Zhū Yú.) as the dry ripe fruit berry of the Cornaceae family plant species (1). Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. It is a plant of the Macrocarpium genus, the Cornaceae Bercht family (dogwood family) of the Apiales order. There are 14 genera and more than 100 species of Cornaceae family plants. In China, there are 8 genera and more than 50 species of Cornaceae family plants. Natural distribution in the north temperate and subtropical mountainous areas, mainly produced in China, England, USA (the United States of America). In China, it is mainly distributed in cool, moist, leeward mountains and hills in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, at altitudes of 600~1,400 meters. It is suitable for warm and humid climates and has the characteristics of shade resistance, prefer light, and moisture resistance. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

 reddish berries of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. grow on thin twigs Botanical description: The plant, Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc is a plant of the Cornaceae family (dogwood family) and Cornus genus, it is also known as Macrocarpium officinale (Sieb. et Zucc.) Nakai, commonly known as Cornus officinalis, Common Macrocarpium, Cornel Dogwood, Asiatic Cornelian Cherry, or Shān Zhū Yú. It is a deciduous shrub or tree, that grows up to 4–10 meters tall; the bark is taupe (dust color or grayish-brown); branchlets (twigs) are thin cylindrical, glabrous or sparsely covered with adnate pubescence. Winter buds are apical and axillary, oval (egg-shaped) to lanceolate, covered with tawny (yellow-brown) pubescence. Leaves are opposite, chartaceous(papery), oval (egg-shaped), elliptic or ovate-elliptic, rarely ovate-lanceolate, 5.5~10 cm long or 5-12 cm long, 2.5~4.5 cm wide, apex is acuminate, base is cuneate, broadly cuneate or orbicular (subrotund), entire, the upper surface is green, glabrous, the under surface is pea green (pale green), rarely covered with appressed white pubescence, axillaris have brownish beard hairs or hazel (pale brown) hairs in cluster, midribs (mid-vein) are distinct on the upper surface, and convex on the undersurface, glabrate (glabrescent), lateral veins are in 6~7 pairs, arched recurved; petioles are thin cylindrical, 0.6~1.2 cm long, the upper surface has shallow grooves, the under surface is rounded, slightly covered with appressed sparse pilose.

 small yellow flower spikes of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. and a honey bee Umbels grow on sides of branches, 4 involucre bracts, oval (egg-shaped), thick chartaceous (papery) to coriaceous, about 8 mm long, purplish, slightly pubescent on both sides, deciduous after flowering; peduncles are stout, about 2 mm long, slightly covered with gray pubescence; flowers are small, hermaphroditic, flowering before leaves; calyx has 4 lobes, wide triangular, equal length as floral disc (flower disc) or longer, about 0.6 mm long, glabrous; 4 flower petals, ligulate-lanceolate, 3.3 mm long, yellow, revolute (reflexed outward); 4 stamens, alternate with flower petals, 1.8 mm long, filaments are subulate, anthers are elliptic, 2-loculed; floral disc is cushiony, glabrous; ovary is inferior, receptacle is obovate, about 1 mm long, densely covered with appressed sparse pubescence, styles are cylindrical, 1.5 mm long, stigma is truncated; pedicels are slender, 0.5~1 cm long, densely covered with sparse pilose.

 red fruit berries of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. grow on its branches Drupes are oblong oval, 1.2–1.7 cm long, 5~7 mm in diameter, red to prunus (violet red); stone (nut) is bony, narrowly elliptic, about 12 mm long, and has a few irregular rib lines. Its flowering period is from March to April, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 fruiting tree of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. with small reddish berries grow in sunny field Ecological Environment: The plant grows in forest edges or forests, in areas at altitudes of 400–1,500 meters above sea level, and rarely in areas at altitudes up to 2,100 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the north-central, northwest to southwest areas, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and moist climate, prefers light. It is appropriate to choose a field with deep soil layers, fertile, sandy loam or loam with good drainage for cultivation.

 dried reddish fruit berries of Asiatic Cornelian Cherry Fruit are piled together Characters of herbs: The pericarp is irregular flakes or saccate (cystic form), about 1–1.5 cm long, and 0.5~1 cm wide. The surface of the new fruit berry is prunus (violet-red), and turns atropurpureus (purple-black) after a long time of storage, shriveled, and glossy. Sometimes there are fruit stalk marks on the base, and a circular persistent calyx mark on the tip. The texture of the herb is soft and moist, not fragile. The herb has a slight odor, tastes sour and puckery, slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is seedless, and the pulp is pulpose and thick, soft, violet red, and oily.

 reddish fruit berries of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. grow on branches Pharmacological actions: ①.increase the level of hepatic glycogen; ②.against adrenaline hyperglycemia; ③.promote cellular immunity, humoral immune function, inhibit the function of mononuclear phagocyte; ④.antishock; ⑤.anti-inflammatory; ⑥.anti-cancer; ⑦.prompt diuresis; ⑧.inhibit platelet aggregation; ⑨.reduce blood viscosity, enhance myocardial contractility, improve the efficiency of the heart, elevate the blood pressure; ⑩.prevent lipodieresis(adipose decompose), etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonify the liver and kidney, collecting essence and Qi, inducing astringency and collecting, consolidate depletion. It is indicated for dizziness, tinnitus (ringing in ears), deaf, dizziness and giddiness, aching pain of waist and knees, impotence (erectile dysfunction), spermatorrhea,enuresis and frequency of micturition, frequent urination, metrorrhagia and metrostaxis (uterine bleeding), morbid leukorrhea, profuse sweating and collapse, hepatic asthenia and alternation of cold and fever, unstoppable abnormal sweating due to general debility, endogenous heat and wasting thirst (internal heat, consumptive thirst), shaking of heart and scattered pulse, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Corni (Shān Zhū Yú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Corni (Shān Zhū Yú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams;or prepared to pill, powder.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions:The herb Fructus Corni should not be combined with Radix Platycodonis, Radix Saposhnikoviae, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, etc.




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