Introduction of Niu Xi:Twoteethed Achyranthes Root or Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Achyranthes bidentata Blume., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae(Twoteethed Achyranthes Root).

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Niú Xī.
 English Name: Twoteethed Achyranthes Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae is the dried root of Achyranthes bidentata Bl., used (1).to nourish the liver and kidney and to strengthen the sinews and bones for the treatment of aching back and knees, and asthenia of the lower limbs, (2).to activate blood flow for treating amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and irregular menstruation, as well as traumatic injuries, and (3).to direct fire or blood downward in the treatment of headache and dizziness due to up-rising of liver Yang, epistaxis and hemoptysis due to up-flaming of fire. The herb is commonly known as Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae, Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, Niú Xī.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Ox-Knee Root(Niu Xi) as the root of the plant species (1). Achyranthes bidentata Blume. It is a plant of the Achyranthes L. genus, the Amaranthaceae family (amaranth family) of the Centrospermae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Achyranthes bidentata Blume., is a plant of the Amaranthaceae family (amaranth family) and Achyranthes genus, it is commonly known as "Niú Xī", or "Huai Niu Xi", "Dui Jie Cao", perennial herb, it grows up to 70~120 cm tall; the root is cylindrical, 5~10 mm in diameter, khaki-colored; stems are angulate or quadrangular, green or purplish, adnate to white or pubescent, or subglabrous, branched opposite. Leaf-blade is elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, few oblanceolate, 4.5~12 cm long, 2~7.5 cm wide, apical at the tip, 5~10 mm long, base is cuneate or broadly cuneate, adnate or spreading on both surfaces; petiole is 5~30 mm long, pilose. Spikes are terminal and axillary, 3~5 cm long, reflexed after anthesis; total pedicel is 1~2 cm long, white pilose; flowers are numerous, densely conical, 5 mm long; sepals are broadly ovate, long 2~3 mm, apically long acuminate; bracts are spiny, 2.5~3 mm long, apically curved, with 1 ovoid membranous lobe on both sides of the base, ca. 1 mm; tepals are lanceolate, ca. 3~5 mm, bright, apically pointed, with 1 midvein; stamens are 2~2.5 mm long; staminodes are apically rounded, slightly serrated serrulate. Umbrella is oblong, 2~2.5 mm long, yellow-brown, smooth. The seed is oblong and is 1 mm long, yellow-brown. Its flowering period is from July to September, the fruiting period is from September to October.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume.:flowering plants Its roots are elongated and cylindrical, some are slightly curved, and the upper end is slightly thicker and the lower end is thin, with a diameter of 0.4~1 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or light brown, slightly distorted, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, long lenticels, and sparse fine lines. It is hard and brittle and easy to break, soft after the damp. The section is flat, yellow-brown, slightly keratinous, and oily. The central vascular bundle is large, yellowish-white, and its periphery is dotted with most punctate vascular bundles, arranged in 2~4 rounds. Odor slightly, slightly sweet, and slightly bitter. The quality of root length, skin fineness, and the color yellow and white are excellent.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume.:flowering plants Ecological Environment: The Achyranthes bidentata Blume., grows in the hillside forest, forest edges, the sides of streams, and shrubberies at an altitude of 200~1,750 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: The plant was native to East Asia, it is mainly distributed in China provinces from south to north except the northeast area. The authentic area of this herb is the Huaiqing area of henan province, China. This species is also widely distributed in other areas including Siberia, Southeast Asia, etc.

 The perennial plant grows to about 0.40~0.75 meter. It is in flower from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

 In China, the plant is mainly produced in the provinces Guizhou, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan, etc. The root is harvested from 1 or 2-year-old plants in the autumn or winter and usually dried in the sun and ground into a powder, used in decoctions, or after being fried with wine.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Achyranthes bidentata Blume is a deep root plant, prefers warm and dry climate; Can not tolerate cold, the plant is easy to freeze to death at a temperature -17 °C (Celsius, or 62.6 degrees Fahrenheit). It is advisable to cultivate in the sandy loam with a deep soil layer. It is not suitable to grow on clay and alkaline soil.

 Twoteethed Achyranthes Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The roots are slender and cylindrical, some are slightly curved, the upper end is slightly thicker, and the lower end is thinner, the length is 15~50 cm or 15~70 cm, the diameter is 0.4~1 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or light brown, with slightly twisted longitudinal wrinkles, small transverse long lenticels, and sparse fine root marks. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easy to break, soft after being affected with dampness, the fracture surface is flat, yellowish-brown or light brown, slightly keratinous and oily, the wood part of the central vascular bundle is large, yellowish-white, with many yellowish-white dotted vascular bundles scattered around it, intermittently arranged in 2~4 rounds. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet and slightly bitter puckery. The herb of better grade has long strips, a thin cortex, thick core part, color yellow and white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.promoting protein synthesis; ②.anti-inflammatory and analgesic action; ③.inhibitory effect on arthritis of experimental animals and promote detumescence(reduce swelling); ④.short antihypertensive effect; ⑤.make uterine contraction or slow contraction effect; ⑥.anti fertility effect; ⑦.improve liver function; ⑧.reduce plasma cholesterol effect; ⑨.mild diuretic effect; ⑩.shorten the silkworm aging effect, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate blood stasis to promote menstruation, activate blood circulation, invigorating liver and kidney, strengthening muscle and bones, prompt diuresis and treating stranguria, ensuring proper downward flow of the blood, leading fire flow downward. It is indicated for amenia (menischesis), blood stasis and amenia, menorrhalgia (dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain after menstruation), aching pain of waist and knees, feebleness of tendons and muscles, flaccidity of lower limbs (flaccidity of legs and feet), postpartum abdominal pain due to blood stasis (abdominal pain due to blood stasis after childbirth), abdominal mass, detention of the afterbirth, stranguria,pyretic stranguria (heat stranguria), bloody stranguria (stranguria due to hematuria), edema, cephalea (headache), dizziness, dentalgia (toothache), aphtha (canker, oral ulcer), swelling and pain in throat, pharyngitis (throat obstruction), hematemesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (the presence of blood in the urine, or passing blood in urine), carbuncle swelling and malignant sore, traumatic injury, etc. Prepared herb functions invigorate liver and kidney, strengthening bones tendons and muscles, indicated for pain in waist knees and bones, spasm of limbs, Wei Bi (feebleness of muscles, and numbness of muscles), etc.

 Administration of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (Niú Xī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (Niú Xī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams);infusing in wine, prepare to an ointment, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mash the herb and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~15 grams;or infusing in wine, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, mash the herb and apply stick, extract juice and dripping to nose, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle into crevice between teeth.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae should be used cautiously or avoid during pregnancy, should not be used in condition suspected to be pregnant not long after amenorrhea. The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae should not be combined with Glowworm, Turtleback, Sambucus chinensis, Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii.

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