Introduction of Niu Xi:Twoteethed Achyranthes Root or Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Achyranthes bidentata Blume., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae(Twoteethed Achyranthes Root).

yellowish dried herb root segments of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae are piled together Pin Yin Name: Niú Xī.
 English Name: Twoteethed Achyranthes Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter, sour.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae is the dried root of Achyranthes bidentata Bl., used (1).to nourish the liver and kidney and to strengthen the sinews and bones for the treatment of aching back and knees, and asthenia of the lower limbs, (2).to activate blood flow for treating amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and irregular menstruation, as well as traumatic injuries, and (3).to direct fire or blood downward in the treatment of headache and dizziness due to up-rising of liver Yang, epistaxis and hemoptysis due to up-flaming of fire. The herb is commonly known as Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae, Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, Niú Xī.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Ox-Knee Root (Niu Xi) as the root of the plant species (1). Achyranthes bidentata Blume. It is a plant of the Achyranthes L. genus, the Amaranthaceae family (amaranth family) of the Centrospermae order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.

 flowering plants of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. with white flowers grow in sunny field Botanical description: The plant, Achyranthes bidentata Blume is also known as Achyranthes bidentata Bl., is commonly known as Niú Xī, Yě Niú Xī, Shān Xiàn Cài, Huai Niu Xi, Dui Jie Cao. A perennial herb, the plant grows up to 70–120 cm high. The root is cylindrical, 5~10 mm in diameter, and khaki (stone yellow). Stems are angular or square, green or purplish, have white appressed or explanate pilose, or glabrate (glabrescent), branches are opposite, and nodes are swollen. Simple leaves are opposite; the petioles are 5~30 mm long; the leaf blade is membranous, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 5~12 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is broadly cuneate, entire, both surfaces are pilose.

 Spikes (spica) are apical and axillary, 3-5 cm long, reflexed after the flowering phase; peduncles are 1~2 cm long, have white pilose; flowers are many, dense, 5 mm long; bracts are broadly ovate, 2~3 mm long, the apex is long and acuminate; Bracteoles are spinous, 2.5~3 mm long, the apex is curved, with 1 oval membranous lobule (lobelet) on each side of the base, about 1 mm long; Tepals are lanceolate, 3~5 mm long, lustrous, the apex is sharp-pointed, has 1 midrib (mid-vein); stamens are 2~2.5 mm long; the apex of the staminode is flat and round, slightly incised-serrulate.

 Utricles are oblong, 2–2.5 mm long, tawny (yellow-brown), and smooth. Seeds are oblong, 1 mm long, and tawny. Its flowering period is from July to September, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 flowering plants of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. with pale green flower spikes grow in field Its roots are elongated and cylindrical, some are slightly curved, and the upper end is slightly thicker, and the lower end is thin, with a diameter of 0.4~1 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or light brown, slightly distorted, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, long lenticels, and sparse fine lines. It is hard and brittle (crisp), easy to break, and soft after the damp. The section is flat, yellow-brown, slightly keratinous, and oily. The central vascular bundle is large, yellowish-white, and its periphery is dotted with the most punctate vascular bundles, arranged in 2~4 rounds. Odor is slightly sweet, and slightly bitter. The quality of root length, skin fineness, and the color yellow and white are excellent.

 many flowering plants of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. with pale green flower spikes grow in a sunny field Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the forest on hillsides, forest edges, grass on hillsides or mountain slopes, and at the side of the house, in areas at altitudes of 200–1,750 meters above sea level. Except for the northeast, it is widely distributed in other areas of China. In some areas, it is cultivated in large quantities.

 Growth characteristics: The plant, Achyranthes bidentata Blume is a plant with a deep root system, the plant prefers a warm and arid climate, is not tolerant of coldness. The plant is susceptible to freezing and death when the temperature drops to -17 °C (Celsius, or 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit). It is appropriate to choose a field with a deep soil layer, and sandy loam for cultivation; clay soil and alkaline soil are not suitable for its growth. The plant can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

 The root is harvested from 1- or 2-year-old plants in the autumn or winter and is usually dried in the sun and ground into a powder, used in decoction, or after being fried with wine.

 pale brown dried short herb root segments of Twoteethed Achyranthes Root are piled together Characters of herbs: The roots are slender and cylindrical, some are slightly curved, the upper end is slightly thicker, and the lower end is thinner, the length is 15~50 cm or 15~70 cm, and the diameter is 0.4~1 cm. The surface is sallow (grayish-yellow) or pale brown, and has slightly twisted vertical wrinkles, small elongated lenticels, and sparse radicel marks (marks of radicula). The texture of the herb is hard and crisp, easy to break, and turns soft after being affected by dampness, the fracture surface is flat, yellowish-brown or light brown, slightly keratoid and oily, and the xylem (wood part) of the central vascular bundles is big, yellowish-white, with many yellowish-white punctate vascular bundles scattered around it, intermittently arranged in 2~4 whorls. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes slightly sweet and puckery (or slightly bitter, puckery). The herb of a better grade has long strips, a thin cortex, a thick core part, yellowish-white color.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.promoting protein synthesis; ②.anti-inflammatory and analgesic action; ③.inhibitory effect on arthritis of experimental animals and promote detumescence(reduce swelling); ④.short antihypertensive effect; ⑤.make uterine contraction or slow contraction effect; ⑥.anti fertility effect; ⑦.improve liver function; ⑧.reduce plasma cholesterol effect; ⑨.mild diuretic effect; ⑩.shorten the silkworm aging effect, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate blood stasis to promote menstruation, activate blood circulation, invigorating liver and kidney, strengthening muscle and bones, prompt diuresis and treating stranguria, ensuring proper downward flow of the blood, leading fire flow downward. It is indicated for amenia (menischesis), blood stasis and amenia, menorrhalgia (dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain after menstruation), aching pain of waist and knees, feebleness of tendons and muscles, flaccidity of lower limbs (flaccidity of legs and feet), postpartum abdominal pain due to blood stasis (abdominal pain due to blood stasis after childbirth), abdominal mass, detention of the afterbirth, stranguria,pyretic stranguria (heat stranguria), bloody stranguria (stranguria due to hematuria), edema, cephalea (headache), dizziness, dentalgia (toothache), aphtha (canker, oral ulcer), swelling and pain in throat, pharyngitis (throat obstruction), hematemesis (spitting blood), epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hematuria (the presence of blood in the urine, or passing blood in urine), carbuncle swelling and malignant sore, traumatic injury, etc. Prepared herb functions invigorate liver and kidney, strengthening bones tendons and muscles, indicated for pain in waist knees and bones, spasm of limbs, Wei Bi (feebleness of muscles, and numbness of muscles), etc.

 Administration of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (Niú Xī): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae (Niú Xī)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 5~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian (about 9~15 grams);infusing in wine, prepare to an ointment, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:mash the herb and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~15 grams;or infusing in wine, or prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, mash the herb and apply stick, extract juice and dripping to nose, or prepare to finely ground herb powder, sprinkle into crevice between teeth.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae should be used cautiously or avoid during pregnancy, should not be used in condition suspected to be pregnant not long after amenorrhea. The herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae should not be combined with Glowworm, Turtleback, Sambucus chinensis, Rhizoma Cynanchi Stauntonii.




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  • 1.Introduction of Niu Xi:Twoteethed Achyranthes Root or Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae.

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