甄權(Zhēn Quán):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.
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Zhen Quan, or Quan Zhen(Given/Sur Name)
about 540~643 A.D.
《明堂人形圖》(Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu) 1 volume, 《針經鈔》(Zhen Jing Chao) 3 volumes, 《脈經》(Mai Jing) 1 volume, 《針方》(Zhen Fang) 1 volume, 《脈訣賦》(Mai Jue Fu, or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) 1 volume, 《本草音義》(Ben Cao Yin Yi, or Herbal Phonosemantics) 7 volumes, 《藥性論》(Yao Xing Lun, or Thesis of Herb Characters) 4 volumes.
Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu 1 volume,Yao Xing Lun(Thesis of Herb Characters) 4 volumes.
Biography and legends:
甄權(Zhēn Quán, c540~643A.D.): a physician in the Tang Dynasty, who was a leading expert on acupuncture, and he is the author of the Zhen Fang(the Needling Prescriptions), and the Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu(the Figures of the Human Body).
甄權(Zhēn Quán), birth year is the Datong six years(year 540 A.D.) of the Western Wei Dynasty(535~556AD, one of the Northern Dynasties), or at Datong seven years(year 541 A.D.) of the Liang Dynasty(502~557AD, one of the Southern Dynasties), passed away at Zhenguan seventeen years of Tang (year 643 A.D.). He was native to Xu Zhou Fugou(ancient toponym, today's Fugou, Henan), for his mother was sick when he was young, carefully learning and study with medicine with his younger brother 甄立言(Zhēn Lì Yán), practice remedy books, and gradually turned a famous herbalist. Herbalist Zhen Quan is very good at acupuncture and moxibustion, also know well in treatment with herbs.
Books and writings: Herbalist Zhen Quan had many writings and works in his life, till today his works known are: Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu 1 volume, Zhen Jing Chao 3 volumes, Mai Jing 1 volume, Zhen Fang 1 volume, Mai Jue Fu, or Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem 1 volume, Ben Cao Yin Yi, or Herbal Phonosemantics 7 volumes, Yao Xing Lun, or Thesis of Herb Characters 4 volumes. These works and writings all lost in ancient time, part of its content available from later classics Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang, Qian Jin Yi Fang, Wai Tai Mi Yao, etc, these works had influences to later generations. The graphs collected in the Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu was very popular and fashionable at the epoch of Tang, famous herbalist 孙思邈(Sūn Sīmiǎo) ever redraw colored photo gallery according to it, and named as Ren Ti Jing Luo Yu Xue Cai Tu, but this classics gallery lost.
The book Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu 1 volumes was recorded in history classics Xin Tang Zhi(or the New Tang Annals), but recorded 2 volumes in the classics Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue, Mai Liao Fu or Mai Jue Fu(the Pulse Rhymed Formula Poem) 1 volume was ever recorded in classics Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue, Ben Cao Yin Yi(the Herbal Phonosemantics) 7 volumes was recorded in Tong Zhi·Yi Wen Lue.
For his mother was sick for long years when Zhen Quan was young, he and younger brother Zhen Liyan studied medicine and treatment with great concentration, read recipe books and crafts widely, started to practice medicine and save people, treated many patients, herbalist Zhen Quan achieved great attainment in acupuncture and moxibustion. In a cold winter, to supply their mother nutrition, the Zhen brothers look for bush meat in the fields, a thin brown hare was caught by Zhen brothers. The younger brother looked carefully at the hare, and assert the thin hare is not hungry but has parasites in the belly, so the younger brother gave the hare irrigation with realgar, rabbits struggled, Zhen Quan administered acupuncture, the hare discharged parasites, and the hare recovered in a few days, the news that Zhen brothers cured the hare spread through the village, many villagers came to their house and seek treatment. At the beginning of KaiHuang Year(reign title of the Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty, or year 581 A.D.), Zhen Quan was assigned theⅠSecretary of the Imperial Library, and he resigned it with cause allege illness, went on with medicine and craft study and treatment till pass away. There were events of his miraculous treatment skills recorded in ancient books:
The ancient book The Old Tang Book·Biography recorded, "Lu Zhou Prefectural governor named 库狄嵚(Ku Diqīn) caught and suffering from apoplexia(a wind-stroke syndrome), doctors could not treat with it, (when comes to consult with herbalist Zhēn Quán, after careful check and diagnose), Quán said:'You simply hold the bow and arrow, aim at the target, only one needle, guarantee you can shoot.' And he was needling his shoulder corner point, the problems and suffering relieved and cured, Ku Diqīn tried to shoot and just hit the target, folks around all cheers."
In the ancient book Qian Jin Yi Fang by herbalist Sun Simiao, its volume 26 recorded a case of herbalist Zhen Quan: during the time Wu De Years(618~626AD), Zhen Quan followed AnKang Duke 李襲譽(Lǐ Xíyù) to guard Lu Zhou(ancient toponymy, today's ChangZhi city of Shanxi province), Shenzhou Prefectural governor named 成君綽(Chéng Jūnchuò) caught problems of swelling nape, as large as a sheng(ancient measure, unit of dry measure for grain), obstruction in the throat, cannot eat any food or drink any water, already 3 days. Zhen Quan needling the forefinger of his right hand, a little while later, the patient's breath became smooth. On the second day, the patient recovered and could eat and drink as healthy. This case was also recorded in the later book Xu Ming Yi Lei An·Yan Hou Men.
Herbalist Zhen Quan know well about herbs and often combine herbs and acupuncture for treatment. Ancient books recorded related cases: AnPing Gong 李德林(Lǐ Délín) was suffering from the hemilateral wind, Zhen Quan treated him with Fang Feng Tang, also needling his seven acupuncture point(Fengchi or Wind Pool, Jiānyú, Quchi, Zhigou, Yanglingquan, Wushu, Lower Ridge of Great Hollow), etc. Let him take 9 doses of the recipes Fangfeng Tang, and needling nine times, the patient recovered gradually in 10 days. AnKang Gong was suffering from a problem of edema, difficulty in micturition, Zhen Quan treated him with a recipe pill composed with Poria cocos, the swelling disappeared before the recipes are taken out. These cases were recorded in ancient book Qian Jin Yao Fang·Shui Zhong Men.
At ZhenGuan 17 years(ZhenGuan, the reign title of Li Shimin, Emperor Taizong of Tang, year 643 A.D.), herbalist Zhen Quan already aged 102, the emperor visited him, greetings him and care his life aspects, consulted with him about the theory of herb character and health maintenance. Zhen Quan wrote a book named Yao Xing Lun(Thesis of Herb Characters) in 4 volumes and gifted to the emperor. Zhen Quan passed away in the same year.
Main books and academic thoughts:
Herbalist Zhen Quan was not only good at acupuncture and herb medicine, was well-known in the court and among folks, he is well in health maintenance, knew deeply that stale rid and freshly taken in is the effective method for lifespan-extending, but he also holds a viewpoint that diet and drinks should not be all fat and tasty, vegetarian meal and mild flavors could aid physical strength, reduce foul turbidity and dirt, adjust and compromise stomach Qi, no disease could be caught. Year 621 AD, herbalist Zhen Quan used the acupuncture graph by 秦承祖[Qín Chéngzǔ, a herbalist lived during the the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the author of the ancient works Ming Tang Tu, in 3 volumes, lost.] as a chief source, check and revise it according to ancient acupuncture books Zhenjiu Jiayi Jing(the A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) and other books, find many mistakes, based on the correction and supplement with the acupuncture graph by Qín Chéngzǔ, later he finished the compilation and charted the Ming Tang Ren Xing Jing Luo Tu, for short as Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu.
In the years of ZhenGuan(627~649AD), for the chaotic conditions of the acupoint name and position, the Tang government gave orders to let officials ShaoFu(ancient official title) Zhen Quan, Chengwu Lang(ancient official title) 司馬德逸(Sīmǎ Déyì), Court Physician 謝季卿(Xiè Jìqīng), Taichang cheng(ancient official title) 甄立言(Zhēn Lìyán), compile and edit the graph spectrum of the meridians and acupoint, to edit, identify and correct the name and position of the acupoint.
At year 627 A.D., Zhen Quan accepted the imperial order to compile and edit Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu, briefly known as Ming Tang, also edit and calibrate the book Tu Jing together with Zhen Liyan, Sima Deyi. The colorful meridian graphs Ming Tang Ren Xing Tu they painted use graphs with detailed notes and explains is one definitive book guidance for those acupuncture practitioners of Tang and later generations, had deep and far influence.
The compiling and editing works led by Zhen Quan, actually is the first time a big compilation and identification system works about acupoint launched by the government in the history with clear history records, so it is also a historical summary of the subject of point ever since the classics Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing(the ABC Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) appeared, a big event served as a link between past and future in the history of acupuncture, has huge meanings for the development of acupuncture. It ended the chaotic conditions of the acupoint identification and various names ever appeared since the Jin Dynasty, South and North Dynasty, the Sui Dynasty and the beginning years of the Tang Dynasty, further developed and enriched the theory of acupoint, did extreme devotions for enlightening later generations, acupuncture education, and spread popularize the acupuncture and moxibustion.
Zhen Quan passed away without any illness at age 103, he was buried in his hometown, at north of the Haogang village, Baotun town of Fugou county, his tomb was listed as an important historical and cultural sites under government protection by the local government. In the grave under the two Chinese scholar tree, long sleep the famous ancient herbalist Zhen Quan, 150 meters northeast away, located the cemetery of Zhen Liyan, his younger brother.
1.甄權(Zhēn Quán):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.