龐安時(Páng ānshí):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.
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☯蘄水道人(Qí Shuǐ Dào Rén,or Qi River Taoist)
Pang Anshi, or Anshi Pang(Given/Sur Name)
QiShui,Qizhou of Song.
about 1042～1100 A.D.
《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Disease Theory on Cold-Induced Disease) in 6 volumes,《難經辨》(Nan Jing Bian, or Discussion on the Classic of Questioning),《難經解義》(Nan Jing Jie Yi, or Interpretation of the Classic of Questioning),《主對集》(Zhu Dui Ji),《本草补遗》(Ben Cao Bu Yi),etc.
《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases)
北宋醫王(Master Herbalist of NorthSong Dynasty)
Introduction: ✵龐安時(Páng ānshí):famous physician lived during the Song Dynasty, author of several famous works, among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of cold-induced diseases and warm diseases under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun(General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases).
龐安時(Páng ānshí, year 1042～1099, or 1100 A.D.), alias 安常(ān cháng), 蘄水道人(Qí Shuǐ Dào Rén, or Qi River Taoist) is his Taoist monastic name, he was native to QiShui of Qizhou(ancient toponym of Song dynasty, today's XiShui county, Hubei province), he was titled as “Bei Song Yi Wang” (Master Herbalist of NorthSong Dynasty).Pang Anshi born in a family with physician tradition, he is wise and fond of learning since childhood, do not forget once read a book. Pang Anshi's father was an ancestral physician, he taught him "Pulse Formulas", young Pang Anshi said: "Reading this book is not enough." He found other pulse theory from Huang Di and Bian Que's books to study. It was not long before he learned the theories of medical books and was able to come up with some new viewpoints. Every time he argues with others, he never loses. His father was very surprised, for Pang Anshi was not yet twenty years old, he caught a disease at 20 years age and became deaf later, went on with studying ancient herbal classics Ling Shu(the Spiritual Pivot), Tai Su(the Grand Simplicity of the Inner Canon), Jia Yi Jing(Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing, or the ABC Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion), etc, also studied with those classics related to medicine, thoroughly and consistently, due to his extensive reading, Pang knew many works related to medicine at that epoch. Herbalist Pang Anshi mastered and excellent in treatment crafts, treat and care with the patient of urgent conditions, not only seek benefit when treating people, he often invites patients who came to seek treatment stay in his house and took care of them by himself until they recovered and then say farewell with each other, in his late years, herbalist Pang Anshi combined theories from different schools and his own clinical experience, compiled and edited medicine book 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun) in 6 volumes, gave a further supplement and interpretation elaboration with the thought of ancient herbalist Zhang Zhongjing. Its extreme characteristics are lay importance on the interpretation of febrile disease and hold a viewpoint to differentiate the febrile diseases from cold-induced disease, this new thought was regarded by later generations as a big devotion to the development of the exogenous disease.
Pang Anshi had a hobby of reading medicine books in his childhood and had a photographic memory, he carefully learned with ancient classics Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) and other works of medicine, knew well with different classics and schools, think thoroughly and had many correct and penetrating views on medical theory and practice, extreme devotions on the cold-induced disease, for his study with depth and clinical practice, made it easy for apply medicine, acupuncture or massage in treatment, obvious effects are achieved, but he was a classical person not bundled with previous theories, hold on his free will and seek with audacity and mediated in-depth, achieved many new theories and creations. For example, Pang Anshi set up a patient workshop, let patients stay with, this was a creation of the TCM system in the middle of the North Song Dynasty, he also tried to reduce the burden of patients and produce herbs for patients, hold on his own belief "(to be a doctor) not for benefit", Pang often treated patients, usually nine out of ten can recover. His distingue medical ethics is difficult to reach for later physicians.
Pang Anshi once said in his works, "I have read all the medical books, among which Bian Que's teachings are the most profound. He incorporated the method of treatment into the book Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), but he didn't write it in all details. He probably hoped that future generations of physicians would gradually understand it in the process of treating patients." Pang said frankly, "My medical skill comes from Bian Que's book Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), in the course of treatment, to judge the conditions of the patient's disease, whether it can be treated or not, is very consistent with what the book says." Pang Anshi believed that the two most important places to observe the pulse phase are "Ren Ying" and "Cunkou". Ren Ying, located near the neck Adam's apple, refers to the carotid pulse; Cunkou, just outside the wrist, refers to the radial pulse. The two pulses are Yin and Yang, which are like two cords. When the Yin and Yang of the human body are balanced, the pulse size of Ren Ying and Cunkou is the same. With this method of judgment and to treat, "the disease can not escape". Pang ever wrote a book over 10,000-characters, it was known as Nan Jing Bian(Discussions on the Difficult Classics)", hoping to pass on his skills based on Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic) to later generations. He also found that some herbs appeared relatively late, which the ancients did not know and people at that time could not distinguish the medicinal properties of these plants. But after practical application, the herbs were found to be effective, and to keep them usable for later generations, he ever wrote a book Ben Cao Bu Yi(the Addendum to the materia medica).
Pang Anshi fell ill at the age of 58, his disciple asked him to treat himself, he said with a smile, "I have got a very good diagnosis. Besides, breathing is also a sign of the pulse, and my stomach Qi is collapsing. I am going to die." A few days later, Pang passed away peacefully while sitting with his guests.
Herbalist Pang Anshi not only master with cold-induced disease, also has in-depth study with epidemic febrile disease, he knew well with internal, pediatric and gynecology, wide and rich experience of clinical practice, gave extreme elaboration with cold-induced disease and epidemic febrile disease.
Interpretation on the theory of cold-induced disease: for the treatment of cold-induced disease, herbalist Pang Anshi hold his theory major from pathogenic factors and pathogenesis, and combined other factors include physique, geography, climate factors to detect, he inherited previous theory and viewpoint that the pathogenic reason of cold-induced disease was severe pathogenic cold, and it varies for the different cases suffered from the difference of time, geography location, physique, and represented as different syndromes: cold-induced disease, wind-affection syndrome, wind-warm syndrome, febrile or warm disease, diseases caused by dampness, summer-heat disease, these different syndromes. He gave further elaboration based on discussions from Shang Han Li, his discussion of cold-induced disease was mainly recorded in the 1~3 volumes of his works (Shang Han Zong Bing Lun), emphasized that the commonly shared pathogenic reason for all exogenous febrile disease is the toxic pathogen, although the toxic pathogen has different properties include Yin, Yang, cold, heat, etc, the clinical representative syndrome also varies multiply as wind-affection, febrile warm, summer dampness, urgent and not serious type or serious, but once caught the cold toxic pathogen(Han Du), then has the shared characteristics of all exogenous febrile disease, which means the treatment of exogenous disease should lay importance on the method of detoxification. On the other side, he also pointed out that "although the severe pathogenic cold already invaded the human body, but whether it could attack as a disease or not depend on factors include the physique strong or weak, the genuine Qi conditions excessive or deficiency, and on the tendency of the severe pathogenic cold developed", herbalist Pang Anshi also laid emphasis on the determination of physique reasons, hold viewpoints that “for those cases endogenous cold pathogens, normally develops into disease with excess of Yin due to Yang insufficiency, or into Yin toxin disease; for those with endogenous heat, normally develops into disease with excess of Yang due to Yin insufficiency, or into Yin toxin disease.”, the basic viewpoint about pathogenic factors based on internal reasons, he also recognized that exogenous disease closely related with climates of four seasons, geography and dwelling place, for the same hit with severe pathogenic cold, when it attack in winter it develops to cold-induced disease(cold affection), when it attack in spring induced by warmth it developed to febrile disease, when it attack in summer induced by heat it develops to summer-heat pyrexia disease, attack in summer induced by summer dampness it develops to diseases caused by dampness, different syndromes occurr for season climate changes. Besides, patients living in the mountain areas more frequently caught wind affection syndrome(Zhong Feng) and syncope due to pathogenic cold, while patients living in the plain area more frequently caught the summer-heat disease and dampness-disease, which proved that disease attack has relations with living habitat. Pang Anshi treat cold-induced disease with respect rules of Zhang Zhongjing, also change the method with flexibility, often treat according to personal conditions and place conditions, got many rich experiences on treatment and accumulated rich therapy method of the cold-induced disease.
Interpretation on the theory of epidemic febrile disease: herbalist Pang Anshi clearly knew the cold-induced disease and warm disease are two types of exogenous febrile disease with different nature, should be treated differently, his discussion of warm disease was mainly recorded in the 4~6 volumes of his works (Shang Han Zong Bing Lun), his theory gave big enlightenment to the later creation and development of the doctrine of seasonal febrile disease, for the epidemic febrile disease or warm diseases, basically herbalist Pang Anshi classified them as latent Qi(latent pathogen, or warm disease caused by a latent pathogen) and epidemic disease. The former(latent Qi) caused by the cold pathogen affection in winter, then it varies and develops according to different seasons, including "febrile or warm disease" in spring, "heat disease" in summer, and wind affection syndrome(Zhong Feng), diseases caused by dampness, wind-warm syndrome, etc. Pang Anshi hold a viewpoint that “the cause of the disease is that caught a cold in winter, syndromes vary when time changes, thus master herbalists defined them as cold-induced diseases in general.”, the latent Qi(Fu Qi, or latent pathogen) also could be classified as insidious cold(Fu Han) and insidious heat(Fu Re), but they both are different from epidemic febrile disease. Thus, he pointed out: “the epidemic febrile disease was caused by the abnormal Qi(Yi Qi, also named pestilential pathogen Li Qi) which is strong toxic, and with characteristics include epidemic, infectiousness, is a kind of syndromes with another kind of character among the exogenous febrile disease, its treatment is different from the treatment of cold-induced disease", the treatment of the cold-induced disease may "has the theory to induce perspiration or purgative methods", but "for the epidemic febrile disease, if treatment as a cold-induced disease with sweat-inducing(diaphoresis) or purgative methods, then definitely death", so herbalist Pang Anshi hold a viewpoint that the epidemic febrile disease and cold-induced disease should be treated separately, this showed some influence on the form of seasonal febrile disease doctrine in later generations. Pang Anshi understood that the warm disease belongs to the cold-induced disease of broader sense, and "warm disease, febrile disease, dampness disease, wind-warm disease" are all belong to "the cold-induced disease of broader sense", in general, he holds a viewpoint that the pathogenic reason of warm disease is due to cold toxin(Han Du) fighting with the Yang Qi, he pointed new pathogenic reasons include Tian Xing and Abnormal Qi of the four seasons, the newly acquired diseases are mainly ⑴.warm toxin and ⑵.winter warm, the disease occurring after incubation are mainly ⑴.wind warm, ⑵.summer-heat disease, ⑶.dampness disease, ⑷.warm disease, ⑸.febrile disease. Pang Anshi observed from his rich practice that, among the epidemic febrile diseases the epidemic heat syndrome may be the most serious and dangerous type, according to Zang Fu and meridian channels from ancient works Shang Han Zan Bing Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases), and discussions from ancient works Qian Jin Fang(the Supplement to the Invaluable Prescriptions), he made syndrome differentiation of the epidemic heat 5 syndromes with a theory of four seasons, five elements, meridians collaterals, and Zang-Fu viscera, and pointed out 5 different types of the epidemic heat syndromes or warm diseases:⑴.blue veins warm disease, ⑵.red pulse warm disease, ⑶.yellow flesh warm disease, ⑷.white Qi fox warm disease, ⑸.black bone warm disease, these 5 warm diseases or epidemic heat syndromes are briefly introduced:
⑴.blue veins warm disease, it attacks in the three months of the spring, origined from Shao Yin and Shao Yang, the Fu and Zang viscera of the liver are affected by Yin and Yang toxin Qi, symptoms observed are contracture and spasm of the back, cold first fever later, could be classified into two types, one type syndrome is the deficiency of Fu-viscera and get hurt by Yin pathogens, timely observed symptoms stiffness of the waist and foot shrinkage, bending of the low back, giddiness and blurred vision, another type syndrome is the excess of Zang-viscera and get hurt by Yang toxin pathogens, symptoms observed include yellowing of eyes, stiffness of waist and could not turn around.⑵.red pulse warm disease, it attacks in the three months of the summer, origined from Shao Yin and Tai Yang, the Fu and Zang viscera of the heart are affected by Yin and Yang toxin Qi, symptoms observed are fever of the body, swelling and pains inside the skin, in case excess of the Zang-viscera and affected by Yang toxin pathogens, other symptoms observed are dryness in mouth and pain of the tongue, obstruction in the pharynx, in case deficiency of the Fu-viscera and affected by Yin toxin pathogens, other symptoms observed are trembling and frightened; ⑶.yellow flesh warm disease, it attacks in the end 18 days at end of the seasons, origined from Tai Yin Yang Ming, the Fu and Zang viscera of the spleen are affected by Yin and Yang toxin Qi, symptoms observed are heaviness in head and stiffness of neck, stiffness of skin and flesh. In case excess of the Zang-viscera is hurt from Yang toxin pathogens, as a result heat pathogen spread in skin and muscles, accumulated below the neck and form a nucleus, spread up to the region of the hair line, lower to the region of the cheekbone, vaguely fever and unstoppable. ⑷.white Qi fox warm disease, it attacks in the three months of the autumn, origined from Tai Yang and Tai Yin, the Fu and Zang viscera of the lung are affected by Yin toxin Qi and Yang toxin Qi, symptoms varies to Yin pathogen or Yang toxins, in case deficiency of Zang and Fu-viscera and get hurt from Yin toxin pathogens, symptoms are sudden cold sudden heat, sudden cough and throw up, in case excess of Zang and get hurt from Yang toxin pathogens, symptoms are fever of the body and eruptions, panting, thirst and want to drink. ⑸.black bone warm disease, it attacks in the three months of the winter, origined from Tai Yang and Shao Yin, the Fu and Zang viscera are affected by Yin and Yang toxin Qi, symptoms varies to Yin pathogen or Yang toxins, in case deficiency of Fu viscera and get hurt from Yin toxin Qi, main symptoms observed are heat in the interior and cold in the exterior, want to keep close to fire and drink water, or pain in the waist region and will bending, in case excess of Zang viscera and get hurt from Yang toxin Qi, main symptoms observed are cutting pain in the chest and hypochondria region as stabbing, swelling of the abdomen.
Pang Anshi focused on the heat poison, treat with a large dose of herbs with toxic heat removing property, hot warm and poison diffusion, prescriptions normally use a large dose of gypsum as the main content, initiated a new way for later herbalists to treat pestilence. Except this, he also compiled the book 《辟溫疫論》(Pi Wen Yi Lun) and listed out recipes which could treat epidemic diseases and prevention measures, etc, which embodies his viewpoints on the importance of prevention for epidemic disease treatment. Pang Anshi explicated warm disease or epidemic febrile disease and left enlightenment for later experts and theory of febrile disease.
Books and works survived: herbalist Pang Anshi gave very high recommend on ancient classics Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), he ever wrote and compiled works known in ancient include 《難經辨》(Nan Jing Bian, or Discussion on the Classic of Questioning), 《難經解義》(Nan Jing Jie Yi, or Interpretation of the Classic of Questioning), 《主對集》(Zhu Dui Ji), 《本草补遗》(Ben Cao Bu Yi), 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Disease Theory on Cold-Induced Disease) in 6 volumes, for the long years, most of the books are lost, the survived books are: 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Disease Theory on Cold-Induced Disease) in 6 volumes, etc.
The book 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Disease Theory on Cold-Induced Disease) total 6 volumes, was finished till Yuan Fu 3rd year(Yuan Fu is the reign title of Zhe Zong Emperor of Song, 1098~1100 A.D., Yuan Fu 3rd year is the year 1100 A.D.), the main content is introduced briefly: the 1st volume is about preface and diseases of the six meridians; the 2nd volume is a discussion on the practicability of various methods(diaphoresis, emesis, purgative, moxibustion, etc.); the 3rd to 5th volumes are about syndrome differentiation and treatment of cold-induced diseases, and prescriptions; the 6th volume recorded miscellaneous prescriptions for cold-induced diseases and pregnancy, general acupuncture method for cold-induced disease and summer-heat disease, the symptoms and differentiation of cold-induced disease and warm disease, cautions once relieved. It collects various schools of the thesis, combined practical experiences, is an early professional book about Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), and had its influences. Although it was compiled for the explanation of the book Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), it has a detailed interpretation of the syndrome differentiation and treatment of warm diseases. It proposed new viewpoints that the treatment of warm diseases should not apply those methods of the cold-induced diseases(diaphoresis, purgative, etc.) mechanically, and for cases need diaphoresis should use herbs mainly with nature hot and sweet, add herbs tastes bitterness, and also set up many new and effective prescriptions with much gypsum for the treatment of warm diseases, and it generated a big influence on the formation of the doctrine of warm diseases(the doctrine of seasonal febrile disease) in later years.
1.龐安時(Páng ānshí):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.