Introduction of Apple:Common apple or fruit of Malus pumila.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Apple, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Pyrus malus, Malus domestica Borkh., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Apple, utilization and economic value, uses of apple preparations, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Apple(Common apple).

Malus pumila:tree English Name: Apple.
 Latin Name: Malus pumila or sylvestris L.
 Common Names: Common apple, wild apple.
 Property and flavor: cold in nature, tastes sweet and sour, No toxic.

 Brief introduction: Apple is the fleshy, seeded, edible fruit of trees of the Malus genus. The graceful, flowering apple tree grows across temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The Malus genus includes one of more than one thousand cultivated varieties. Its seeded fruits come in various sizes, taste sweet and tart, colors red, yellow, green, and texture mealy, and snappy.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Apple as the dried fruit of the species (1).Pyrus malus, Malus domestica Borkh. It is a plant species of the Malus genus, in the Rosaceae family (the rose family). The fruit, bark, juice, dried fruit peels, the inflorescences with their leaves, and solid peduncles are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Pyrus malus, Malus domestica Borkh.

 Malus pumila:fruting tree Botanical description: The apple tree grows from 3~6 to 10~14 meters tall. The diameter of the trunk reaches up to 90 cm. The crown of the apple tree is wide branching, sometimes spherical or ovoid. Shoots remain pubescent for a long time. Buds are ovoid-conical. Leaves are 5~10 cm long, ovoid, with a pointed peak and rounded or slightly heart-shaped base, crenate-serrate, and pubescent. Leafstalk is not more than 1/3 of the blade length. Corolla is 1~2 or 4~5 cm in diameter, white or pinkish. Fruits are different in shape, the size of apple fruit is usually more than 3 cm in diameter, the peel has color and texture. Fruits have a sour, sour-sweet, or sweet taste. Average mass of the fruit is 150~160 grams, but some vatieties are big, up to 600 grams or 900 grams. Apple tree flowers during April to June, bears fruit from August to October.

 Malus pumila:tree and fruits Ecological environment: Malus Domestica grows in all countries with temperate, warm climates. It originates from different species and forms of the wild apple tree. East Asia and the Caucasus are the centers of the origin and varieties of the apple tree.

 Growth characteristics: Apple trees grow and bear good fruits in loamy and sandy loam soils, as well as in sandy soils with the addition of organic fertilization. Depression of growth and development is observed in saline, swampy and peaty soils. The life duration of the apple tree is 30~100 years, on average 60~70 years. The area of significant cultivation of large-fruited varieties, as a rule, is located in the south. Summer types are grown in areas having approximately -2000 growing degree days (GDD), autumn types and winter types in areas having 2200 to 2400 GDD.

 green and red apples Characters of herbs: Apple fruit is pear-shaped or oblate spherical, cyan, yellow or red, 5~10 cm in diameter, or larger, with concave top and base; the outer skin is thin, leathery, fleshy, the endocarp is tough, divided into 5 compartments, there are 2 seeds in each compartment. Apple has a fragrant aroma, it tastes sweet and slightly sour.

 Utilization and economic value: Appletree is the main fruit tree in some countries of the Northern Hemisphere. There are about 10 thousand varieties, fruits are an important dietetic food, as they contain numerous valuable vitamins, 12~13% sugar, apple acid (3.7~4.1%), lemon acid (0.09~0.13%), pectin (0.43~1.2%), and tannins (0.025~0.1%). Fruits are utilized in fresh and dry states, processed into juice, compote, jam, purée, pastila, jelly, and wine. Productivity ranges from 10 to 140 tons per hectare.

 The chief fruit acids of apple is malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, in unripe apple is quinic acid.

 Apples contain a large concentration of flavonoids, as well as a variety of other phytochemicals, and the concentration of these phytochemicals may depend on many factors, such as the cultivar of the apple, harvest, and storage of the apples, and processing of the apples. The concentration of phytochemicals also varies greatly between the apple peels and the apple pulp. In numerous epidemiological studies, apples have been associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and asthma.

 Apple cider vinegar and green apple Uses of apple preparations: Apple cider vinegar is made from the fermentation of apple juice, the fermentation provides alcoholic apple cider that is combined with oxygen to produce acetic acid. The pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) of apple cider vinegar is beneficial for the body. It has long been used as a health aid for weight loss and circulatory health. It is a safe supplement, even for children. There are no known side effects resulting from using it.

 Apple cider vinegar is rich in minerals, vitamins, and other substances. It contains vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, vitamin P, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin B6. Apple cider vinegar also has a lot of beneficial minerals including manganese, iron, calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, phosphorus, silicon, chlorine, and fluorine. Apple cider vinegar provides enzymes, amino acids, aldehydes, potash, alcoholic acids, propionic acid, and apple pectin. Apple pectin is a dietary fiber that is an essential component of a healthy diet. With more than ninety substances and plenty of minerals and vitamins, apple cider vinegar can be one of the important part in a healthy diet.

 According to related studies, apple cider vinegar is helpful for arthritis, asthma, blood pressure, bones, cancer, candida, chest congestion, cholesterol, colds, constipation, cramps, diabetes, diarrhea, digestion, depression, dizziness, ear discharge, eczema, fatigue, food poisoning, gallstones and kidney stones, hair loss, hay fever, headaches, heartburn, hemorrhages, hiccups, impaired hearing, indigestion, insomnia, metabolism, nasal congestion, sore throat, stiff joints, ulcers, weight loss, etc. Many people use apple cidar vinegar for weight loss purpose.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Pectin is a swelling agent, apple pectins have a mild binding effect; ②. High-fiber substance pectin and pectic acids are identified for their function regulating the consistency of the stool and controlling diarrhea and relieving constipation; ③. Pectin might help to reduce cholesterol level, stabilize blood sugar level which is valuable in diabetes, prevent certain kinds of cancer; ④. Apples with pectin removed can raise blood sugar in laboratory animals; ⑤. Apple mildly prevents the hypertensive effect of deoxycorticosterone in rats; ⑥. Antioxidant activity; ⑦. Anti-allergic effect of apple polyphenol on patients with atopic dermatitis; ⑧. Prevention of bone loss and skin protection.

 Medicinal efficacy: Apple is used traditionally in encouraging good digestion, preventing constipation, diarrhea and infectious diarrhea, cleaning the teeth, relieving fever, infant intestinal disorders, heart disease, rheumatic joint stiffness and pain, high cholesterol, warts, cancer, and other ills. Apple bark was used by TCM herbalists for the treatment of diabetes. Finely ground fruit or preparations that contain liquid or dry pectin are used for mild cases of dyspepsia, diarrhea, and digestive complaints, especially in children.

 Relevant studies also found apple could suppress the production of the melanin, suppress the functioning of tyrosine enzymes, aid in whitening, polyphenols from apple are found to protect the skin and alleviate allergic dermatitis, and its antioxidant component could prevent free radicals and ultraviolet ray damage to the skin, and has a reliable sunproof effect, could be used in sun lotions and cosmetics.

 In the TCM system, the functions of apple fruit are recorded to benefit the stomach, promote the secretion of saliva or body fluid, relieve restlessness, and dispel the effects of alcohol. It is indicated for thirst due to less body fluid, splenasthenic diarrhea, abdominal distension after a meal, excessive drinking of alcohol, etc.

 Administration of Apple(Common apple): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Apple(Common apple)
Herbal classic books and TCM Book: Apple fruit is advised to appetite, whole, peeled, grated, and juiced. No dosage information is available for the bark. In TCM herbal works, apple is advised to take as raw food, mashed juice, or as a boiled paste for internal use, and extracted juice to apply externally.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Apple is viewed as a supplement, but normally not an alternative for treatment. No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages. Apple polyphenols are listed in the FDA's approved additive as GRAS or generally recognized as safe database.
 The apple fruit is harmless, but the seeds are not, the seeds contain cyanide which is a deadly poison. Taking apple seeds leads to symptoms and may cause stomach upset, diarrhea, and constipation, large doses of apple seeds can induce serious and potentially fatal reactions, symptoms of poisoning may appear several hours later as cyanide takes a while to be absorbed into the body.

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