✵The article gives records of the herb Anise, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Pimpinella anisum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Anise, its traditional uses, pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Anise(Pimpinella anisum L.).
English Name: Anise.
Latin Name: Pimpinella anisum L.
Common Names: aniseseed, sweet cumin
Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet, ordor characteristic.
Brief introduction: The Pimpinella anisum is an annual herb, it is cultivated for its licorice-scented fruit, anise seed. The seeds can be used as a food seasoning and herb, and the seedlings can be used as green vegetables or salad side dishes.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Anise as the dried fruit of the species (1). Pimpinella anisum L. It is a plant species of the Pimpinella genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, the parsley family). The dried fruit and essential oil from the ripe fruit are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Pimpinella anisum L.
Botanical description: The Pimpinella anisum is an annual herb, it grows 10~80 cm high, pubescent, and the stem is cylindrical, with fine stripes, the upper part is branched. The basal leaves are petiolate, the leaves are simple or undivided or 3-lobed, the final lobes are kidney-shaped, with notch teeth on the edge; the upper leaves of the stem are pinnately divided or 3-lobed and the final lobes are linear-lanceolate. Compound umbels are terminal or axillary, with no involucral bracts or only 1; umbrella spoke is 7~20, unequal in length, up to 4 cm long, puberulent; involucral bracteoles are few, linear, unequal in length; without calyx teeth; style base is shortly conical; petals are white, oblong. Fruit is ovate-oblong, 3~5 mm long, 2~2.5 mm wide, puberulent; carpel stalk is 2 splits to the middle; 2~4 oil tubes in each groove, 4~8 oil tubes in commissure; Endosperm ventral surface is slightly concave. The flowering period is May to June, and the fruiting period is June to July. The 1000-grain weight of the seeds is 5 grams, and the germination power of the seeds can be maintained for 3 years.
Ecological environment: Pimpinella anisum grows mostly in the grasslands on hillsides and forests, and in the valleys and shrubs. It is native to Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean region, and is cultivated in southern Europe, the Near East, North Africa, central Asia, USA (the United States of America), Mexico, Central and South America, Xinjiang of China, Pakistan, and Japan.
Growth characteristics: Pimpinella anisum likes a mild climate and is not resistant to high temperatures. It can grow at 10~20 °C (Celsius, or 50~68 degrees Fahrenheit). The suitable temperature is 18~20 °C (Celsius, or 64.4~68 degrees Fahrenheit). It grows slowly below 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and above 29 °C (Celsius, or 84.2 degrees Fahrenheit), and can tolerate a low temperature of 0 °C (Celsius, or 32 degrees Fahrenheit) for a short time. The initial germination temperature of seeds is 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit), and the optimum temperature is 15~20 °C (Celsius, or 59~68 degrees Fahrenheit). The light requirements are not strict, and it is more resistant to low light. It is a long-day crop that bolts and blooms under high temperature and long-day sunshine. The soil requirements are not strict, moist fertile sandy loam is suitable, and the suitable pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) is 5.5~6.8. The growing season requires sufficient fertilizer and water, and it mostly grows in the grasslands on the hillsides and forests, and in the valleys and shrubs.
Traditional Uses of Anise Seed: Anise seeds are mostly used in pastry seasoning. It is commonly used in food and vegetable seasoning in the Mediterranean region and Asia. It has been used as a drink since prehistoric times, has a sedative effect, and contains essential oil of about 2.5%, the main component of essential oil is anethole, it is used in absinth, anisette, and Pernod liqueur.
Vegetables: The leaves and green shoots of Pimpinella anisum are tender and fragrant. They are mainly used for salads, or as soups and seasonings. They have the effect of promoting appetite, helping digestion, strengthening the stomach, and expectorating phlegm.
Seasoning spices: the anise fruits are used as an aromatic spice and as cooking condiments, to prepare cakes, and bread, or to make wine and candied fruit. In cooking, anise is a famous cooking herb and the main ingredient in traditional French spices. Add aniseed to a salad for an instant spicy aroma that brings out the flavors of other vegetables and herbs.
Anise seeds are rich in anethole, a phenolic compound that not only has a characteristic aroma but also tastes sweet. When used in cooking, it can add a spicy aroma to a dish, which brings out the true flavor of the food and other spices.
The flavor of anise seed goes well with sweet and savory dishes, especially seafood. When making seafood stew or seafood soup, pour a small cup of anise wine (anisette) to give the soup a slightly sweet fragrance. If anisette is not available, add a teaspoon of anise seed while cooking the onion, garlic, and other spices.
Characters of herbs: The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 3~6 mm long, usually called "aniseed", the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 1~5 cm long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are either white or yellow, approximately 3 mm in diameter, produced in dense umbels.
Pharmacological actions: ①.expectorant; ②.carminative; ③.clearing upper respiratory tract congestion and calming spasm-related indigestion problems; ④.milk stimulant; ⑤.sexual arousant; ⑥.antibacterial and insecticidal properties; ⑦.increase intestinal iron absorption;
Medicinal efficacy: The herb anise is used for clearing respiratory tract congestion and cough, aiding digestion or relieving indigestion, gas, stomach cramps, infant colic, bad breath, nausea including morning sickness, stimulating mother's milk production, facilitating birth, increasing libido. Anise oil is used externally for lice and scabies and as an inhalant for congestion. As a licorice flavor in candies and liqueurs. In Europe, the herb Anise is approved for the common cold, cough and bronchitis, fevers and colds, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, dyspeptic complaints, and loss of appetite. In folk medicine, it is used for whooping cough, flatulence, colic-like pain, digestive, menstruation disturbances, liver disease, and tuberculosis. In homeopathic application, it is used for shoulder pain and lumbago.
In TCM theory, the herb is used to warm the middle (warm the middle energizer) and dispel cold, dispelling wind and lowering Qi, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain, strengthening the stomach, and relieving dysentery. It is indicated for abdominal distention, enteritis, and dysentery.
The fruit of anise is rich in aromatic oil, the oil contains about 30% anethole, and about 30% of fatty acids, proteins, and sugars. It has a strong expectorant effect without causing side effects. In Europe, people often use anise fruit and honey to make medicines for children. Anise seeds also help to relieve pain from various diseases, as well as reduce swelling and expelling worms. In addition, it is a good stomach tonic and mild diuretic.
Administration of Anise(sweet cumin):
Administration Guide of Anise(sweet cumin)
Herbal classic books:
Commonly advised internal dosage is 3 grams as an expectorant and gastrointestinal spasmolytic. A tea is prepared using 1 teaspoon of crushed seeds per cup of water and is drunk up to three times per day, for expectorant purposes drink 1 cup of tea in the morning or evening, for gastrointestinal complaints drink 1 dessertspoon per day, for infants 1 teaspoon and added to the bottle. A tincture is advised in the dose of a half to 1 teaspoon, up to three times daily. Infusion of a single dose is advised at 0.5~1 grams before meals. The essential oil is usually used as an inhalant, so the essential oil should not be taken internally except under professional supervision. Dosage for homeopathic use is 5 drops, 1 tablet, or 10 globules every 30 to 60 minutes for an acute condition, or 1 to 3 times daily for a chronic condition, parenterally: 1 to 2 mL sc acute, 3 times daily; chronic: once a day.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The FDA considers it a safe herb for food use, generations have used the seeds without suffering major adverse reactions. Do not swallow the essential oil directly (even a few teaspoons of oil can cause vomiting, seizures, and pulmonary edema). People sensitive to anethole may develop redness, scaling, blistering, or other signs of an allergic or adverse reaction with topical formulations, the herb should be avoided if you have ever had an allergic response to it or anethole. There are no health hazards or side effects known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages. Occasionally there are allergic reactions to the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and breathing passages.
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1.Introduction of Anise:anise seed or sweet cumin.