Introduction of Broom:Scotch broom or Irish broom.
✵The article gives records of the herb Broom, its English name, Latin name, common names, synonyms, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cytisus scoparius Link., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Broom, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Broom.
Latin Name: Cytisus scoparius Link.
Common Names: Basam, Besom, Bizzom, Breeam, broom tops, hogweed, Brum, Browme, Irish broom, scoparius, Scotch broom, Scottish broom, Irish Tops, Scoparium.
Synonyms: Sarothamnus scoparius Wimm., Sarothamnus vulgaris Wimm., or Spartium scoparium L.
Property and flavor:
Brief introduction: Broom is a large shrub with golden-yellow butterfly-like flowers, it is native to Europe, Western and Central Asia, and the herb and flower are used.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Broom as the dried tops of the species (1).Cytisus scoparius Link. It is a plant species of the Cytisus genus, the Leguminosae family (legume, pea family). The dried tops and other dried above-ground parts, broom herb, and freshly picked flowers are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Cytisus scoparius Link.
Botanical description: Cytisus scoparius is a shrub, it grows up to 50~200 cm high. Branches are tufted, upright, slender, glabrous, with longitudinal fine edges. The upper part is usually a simple leaf, and the lower part is a palmately trifoliate compound leaf; With a short handle; Stipules are small, usually inconspicuous or absent; Leaflets are obovate to elliptic, 5~15 mm long and 3~5 mm wide. The upper part of the stem has a smaller single leaf, the apex is blunt and round, the base tapers to a short stalk, the upper part is glabrous or nearly glabrous, and the lower part is sparsely appressed pubescent. The taproot is very sturdy and woody, and the root bark is brown.
Flowers are solitary, arranged in racemes at the tips of branches, there are bract-shaped leaves at the base; Pedicel is thin, about 1 cm long; Bracteoles are absent; Calyx 2-lipped, glabrous, usually pink-white, about 4 mm long, very thin and short calyx, 3 short apices of the upper lip and 3 short apices of lower lip; The corolla is bright yellow, glabrous, 1.5~2.5 cm long, the flag petal is oval to round, the apex is slightly concave, the wing petal is as long as the flag petal, it is blunt, the keel petal is wide, and it is bent; Stamens are monosomic, anther dimorphism; Style is thin, protruding from corolla and spiraling inward, up to 2 cm long.
The pod is flat, broadly linear, 4~5 cm long and 1 cm wide, villous on suture; There are many seeds. Seeds are oval, 3 mm long, grayish-yellow or brown-black. The flowering period is from May to July. Because the flowers are mostly yellow or golden yellow, they are shaped like finches, which is the reason why this flower is named a broom.
Ecological environment: Cytisus scoparius is native to Europe, and Western and Central Asia, it grows across the Atlantic and Pacific Northwest coasts of America, also in Canary Islands, Chile, north and south Africa, etc.
Growth characteristics: Cytisus scoparius prefers light, resistant to cold, drought, and barren soil.
Characters of herbs: Broom herb is the above-ground parts of Cytisus scoparius, broom flowers are the flowers of Cytisus scoparius.
Pharmacological actions: ①.inhibit arrhythmias and slow the heart; ②.correct abnormally low blood pressure; etc.
Related studies found the alkaloid component in broom, sparteine, could slow the heart and inhibit arrhythmias and extrasystoles, it can correct hypotension (abnormally low blood pressure), and stimulate uterine contractions. Other alkaloids have a cardiac effect too. Its flower's diuretic effect is mainly due to the glycoside scoparoside.
Medicinal efficacy: Traditionally the herb Broom is used as a diuretic and laxative agent in America and Europe, also used to induce vomiting, broom tea was used for improving cardiac circulation, its component is used to treat abnormal heart rhythms and extrasystole, topical preparations are used for swelling, abscesses, and sore muscles, and in antitumor formulas. Sparteine is also used by Veterinarians to treat animals for its diuretic and heart tonic effects. It is also used by homeopaths for various ailments.
Due to the health risks, the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) withdrew approval of sparteine for heart problems in the late 1970s, but it was approved in some European countries for circulatory disorders and hypertension. In Europe, the broom herb is traditionally used in folk medicine to stabilize circulation, raise blood pressure, edema, cardiac arrhythmia, nervous cardiac complaints, low blood pressure, heavy menstruation, hemorrhaging after birth, bleeding gums, hemophilia, gout, rheumatism, sciatica, gall and kidney stones, enlarged spleen, jaundice, bronchial conditions, snake bites. The broom flower is traditionally used for edema, rheumatism, gout, kidney stones, jaundice, liver disorders, enlarged spleen, and blood purifier.
Administration of Broom (Scotch broom):
Administration Guide of Broom (Scotch broom)
Herbal classic books:
The recommended dosage for broom herb is infusion 1 cup of fresh infusion 3 times daily. Internal use of tincture is 0.5 to 2 ml. The preparation should be carefully protected from light and moisture. The recommended dosage for broom flower is an infusion of 1 cup daily. Infusion is advised to prepare with 150 ml boiling water over 1 teaspoon of flowers and strain after 10 minutes.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The broom herb should not be used during pregnancy for its abortive effect, the broom flower should not be used in cases of high blood pressure or when monoamine oxidase inhibitors are used. The FDA considers the herb unsafe and warns of adverse reactions such as nausea, diarrhea, vertigo, fast heartbeat with circulatory collapse, and stupor. Smoking broom tops poses the risk of heart problems, uterine contraction, headaches, and other adverse reactions.
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1.Introduction of Broom:Scotch broom or Irish broom.