Introduction of Bromelain:plant protease of pineapple.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Bromelain, its English name, its botanical source plant species, ①.Ananas comosus., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Bromelain, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Bromelain(plant protease of pineapple).

Pineapple fruit growing on Ananas comosus plant English Name: Bromelain.
 Latin Name: 
 Property and flavor: 

 Brief introduction: Bromelain is a pure natural plant protease made from the peel, stem, core, and other parts of pineapple fruit by biotechnology. Its molecular weight is 33,000, and it belongs to sulfhydryl protease, which can carry out various biochemical reactions such as protein hydrolysis. Bromelain is a natural, non-toxic, harmless, sanitary, and safe protease.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Bromelain as an enzyme from plant parts and fruits of the species (1). Ananas comosus. It is a plant species of the Bromelia genus, the Bromeliaceae family (bromeliad, pineapple family). This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Ananas comosus.

 collected pineapple fruits Botanical description: Ananas comosus have short stems. Leaves are many, arranged in a rosette, are sword-shaped, 40~90 cm long and 4~7 cm wide, with tapered tips, entire edge or with sharp teeth, ventral surface is green, the back surface is pink green, and edges and tips are brownish-red. The leaves grow at the top of the inflorescence and become smaller and often red.

 The inflorescence is drawn out from the foliage, shaped like a pine ball, 6~8 cm long, and enlarged when bearing fruit; Bracts are green at the base, reddish at the upper part, triangular-ovate; Sepals are broadly ovate, fleshy, with reddish tips, about 1 cm long; Petals are oblong, pointed, about 2 cm long, with the purple-red upper part and white lower part.

 Collective fruit is fleshy and more than 15 cm long. Its flowering period is from summer to winter.

 Ananas comosus:pineapple field Ecological environment: Pineapple is native to the tropical mountains along the Amazon River in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay in South America, but no real wild fruit has been found. Around 1600 A.D., it was spread to Central America and northern South America for cultivation. Because the sprouts of pineapple are more durable for storage and transportation, they are quickly introduced into tropical and subtropical areas of the world in a short time. From the end of the 16th century to the 17th century, it was introduced into southern China. It is cultivated in about 61 countries and regions in the world. It is also cultivated in Thailand, USA (the United States of America), Brazil, Mexico, Philippines, and Malaysia.

 Growth characteristics: Pineapple is native to tropical, high-temperature and arid areas in South America. It likes warmth, and it grows best at an average annual temperature of 24-27 °C (Celsius, or 75.2~80.6 degrees Fahrenheit). It can grow at 15-40 °C (Celsius, or 59~104 degrees Fahrenheit), grows slowly below 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), and stops growing below 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit). 5 °C (Celsius, or 41 degrees Fahrenheit) is the critical temperature for cold damage. It has strong drought tolerance, but it still needs a certain amount of water for growth and development. It can grow in areas with an annual rainfall of 500~2,800 mm, and 1,000~1,500 mm with uniform distribution is the best. When the soil is short of water, pineapple plants have the function of self-regulation, reducing transpiration intensity, slowing down respiration, and saving water in leaves to maintain life activities; When there is a serious water shortage, the leaves are red and yellow, so irrigation is needed in time to prevent them from drying up; Excessive rain and high soil humidity will cause root rot and plant heart rot or wilting. Therefore, it is necessary to drain water in time after heavy rain or rainstorm.

 Ananas comosus:pineapple field Bromelain structure: Bromelain is an enzyme system composed of a variety of enzymes with different molecular weights and molecular structures, including at least five proteolytic enzymes. In addition, some also contain phosphatase, peroxidase, cellulose, other glycosidases, and non-protein substances. Bromelain is a glycoprotein, and its molecular structure contains an oligosaccharide molecule, which is composed of xylose, fucose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine, covalently linked to the peptide chain.

 The molecular weight of bromelain is 30,000~33,000, and the maximum absorption wavelength of the enzyme solution is 280 nm. Because it is composed of a variety of enzyme molecules, it has diversity in catalytic substrates. It can decompose protein, peptides, lipids, and amides, and its proteolytic activity is higher than that of papain. The essential group for bromelain catalysis is the sulfhydryl group in the contained peptide chain.

 Application of bromelain in the food processing industry: Bromelain is mainly used for baked food, cheese, and meat processing. ①.Baked food: Adding bromelain to the dough can degrade gluten, and the dough is easy to process after being softened. And can improve the taste and quality of biscuits and bread. ②.Cheese: used for coagulation of casein. ③.Tenderization of meat: bromelain hydrolyzes protein macromolecule protein into easily absorbable small molecule amino acids and protein. Can be widely applied to the finishing of meat products.

 Application in cosmetology: bromelain has effects on skin rejuvenation, whitening, and removing spots. Bromelain can act on the aged cuticle of human skin, promote its degradation, decomposition, and removal, promote skin metabolism, and reduce skin color depth caused by sun exposure. Make skin care appear white and tender.  

 Application in feed: Adding bromelain into feed formula or directly mixing it in feed can improve the utilization rate and conversion rate of protein, and develop a wider range of protein sources, thus reducing feed cost.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Inhibit tumor cells growth; ②.inhibit heart attack and stroke; ③.useful for burn scab removal; ④.anti-inflammatory; etc.

 Past studies proposed Bromelain could inhibit the growth of tumor cells, it can inhibit heart attack and stroke caused by platelet aggregation, relieve angina pectoris symptoms, and relieve arterial contraction. Bromelain can selectively remove the skin, so it is useful for burn scab removal. Bromelain can effectively treat inflammation and edema in various tissues.

 Medicinal efficacy: Bromelain is one of the pineapple plant's enzymes, it was extracted by manufacturers, in the past since 1957, and it was promoted for encouraging good digestion, removing dead tissue from skin burns, inflammation, and edema caused by surgery, trauma, allergies, arthritis, infections, relieve diarrhea due to digestive enzyme deficiency, respiratory tract infections, painful menses, vein inflammation and varicose veins, pain, and swelling, ulcer, etc.

 But clinical trials failed to prove its efficacy for most ailments promoted when taken by human beings, so authorities in North America no longer prescribe it.

 Administration of Bromelain (plant protease of pineapple): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Bromelain (plant protease of pineapple)
Herbal classic books: The commonly recommended dosage of Bromelain in North America is 250~500 mg tablets three times daily, between meals. Take with meals for digestive aid purposes.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Bromelain has some adverse reactions, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and excessive menstrual flow. It may cause allergic reactions if you are sensitized to it or are exposed to it for a long period. Repeated exposure to the bromelain destroyed pineapple cutter's fingerprints, so it really brings hurt by contact.
 For some sensitive people, it is recommended to wear protective gear during the operation because long-term contact may irritate the skin, eyes, and nasal mucosa.
 Like some fruits, eating pineapples can make some people allergic, and the allergic reaction can occur within 15 minutes at the earliest. Such symptoms are called "pineapple disease" or "pineapple poisoning". For example, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, skin flushing, itching all over the body, numbness of limbs and tongue, and severe allergic reactions such as dyspnea and shock. Soaking pineapples in salt water before eating can also decompose some organic acids in the salt water, remove the sour taste and make pineapples taste sweeter.

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