Introduction of Cranberry:Trailing swamp cranberry or marsh apple.
✵The article gives records of the herb Cranberry, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Cranberry, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Cranberry.
Latin Name: Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.
Common Names: Trailing swamp cranberry, black cranberry, bog cranberry, grosse Moosebeere, Kronsbeere, low cranberry, marsh apple, mountain cranberry, mossberry, American cranberry.
Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sweet and sour.
Brief introduction: Cranberry is the well-known red acidic fruit or berry of a small evergreen shrub. Many species are cultivated throughout USA (the United States of America), especially in Washington and Massachusetts. The medicinal part of cranberry is the juice from the berries.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Cranberry as the berry of the species (1). Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. It is a plant species of the Vaccinium genus, of the Ericaceae family (heath family). The dried fruit and essential oil from the mature fruit are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.
Botanical description: Vaccinium macrocarpon is creeping, evergreen shrubs that are spread by rhizomes. Upright shoots form from rhizomes after about 2 years, which produce flowers and fruit. Uprights may grow 2~4 inches (5.08~10.16 cm) annually, with the bases of the stems sagging down as the upright elongates, hence, only the terminal 5 to 8 inches (12.7~20.32 cm) remains in vertical position. Leaves are tiny, evergreen, thick, and oval or oblong with entire margins. Leaves persist for 2 seasons and are shed in the late summer of the year after development. The plant yield pink flowers, followed by small, red-black edible berries from June to July. The flowers are hermaphrodites.
Ecological environment: Vaccinium macrocarpon grows in forests of the world, especially Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, North Carolina, Minnesota, the Great Lakes region, and Scandinavia. In bogs, swamps, and along lake shores.
Growth characteristics: Soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) needs to be 4.0~5.2. The plants are grown commercially as a food crop, and the berries mature during August to November. This plant is intolerant of heat and drought.
Pharmacological actions: ①.prevent urinary tract infections; ②.lessen the urinary odor; ③.relieve chronic kidney infection; ④.reduce the risk of urinary stone; etc.
The herb cranberry juice prevents urinary tract infections, cranberry make the urinary tract unfavorable to these bacteria by inhibiting them from sticking to the wall of the bladder so that they simply get flushed out before they can do any damage. At present, cranberry juice is listed in US Pharmacopeia (USP, or United States Pharmacopoeia) as an effective remedy for preventing urinary tract infections. The herb cranberry can lessen the urinary odor of incontinent individuals by slowing the activity of bacteria, especially Escherichia coli that contribute to it, by reducing the urine's acidity. The herb cranberry also reduces the risk of urinary stone recurrence and relieves symptoms of chronic kidney infection.
Medicinal efficacy: Cranberry was used by American Indians to prevent and treat urinary tract infections, as a home remedy, or as a cranberry cocktail. Today it is still used for chronic conditions by many women, to treat inflammation of the urinary bladder, cystitis, and to deodorize urine. In folk medicine it is used for anorexia, blood disorders, cancer treatment, diabetes, diuresis, nephrolithiasis prevention, radiation damage to urinary system, scurvy, stomach ailments, wound care.
Administration of Cranberry (marsh apple):
Administration Guide of Cranberry (marsh apple)
Herbal classic books:
Common dosage to prevent urinary tract infections, 90 mL(milliliter) cranberry juice cocktail or the equivalent is drunk daily, or 30~300 grams cranberry juice, in children 15 mg/kg body weight is recommended. To treat infection, 12 to 32 ounces are drunk daily. 500 mg capsules two to four are taken three times a day for infections. In type 2 diabetes, 200~400 mg.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: When consumed in large amounts, gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea may occur. Scientific evidence for the safe use of cranberry during pregnancy is not available.
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1.Introduction of Cranberry:Trailing swamp cranberry or marsh apple.