Introduction of Garlic:Clove Garlic or Common Garlic.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Garlic, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Allium sativum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Garlic, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Garlic(Clove Garlic).

Garlic bulbs English Name: Garlic.
 Latin Name: Allium sativum L.
 Common Names: Allium, Clove Garlic, Common Garlic, Camphor of the poor, Nectar of the gods, Poor man's treacle, rustic treacle, stinking rose, etc.
 Property and flavor: warm in nature, tastes pungent flavor.

 Brief introduction: Garlic is a famous food and medicine, it is the bulb of the flowering Allium sativum, pink to purple flowers bloom from July to September, it is a plant of the lily family, a family that also includes onions, leeks, and scallions.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Garlic as the bulb of the species (1).Allium sativum L. It is a plant species of the Allium genus, the Liliaceae family (lily family). The whole fresh bulb, the dried bulb, and the oil of Garlic are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Allium sativum L.

 Allium sativum:drawing of plant Botanical description: Allium sativum is a perennial herb, it has a strong garlic odor, and grows 25 to 70 cm high, the plant contains an upright, rigid or curved stem, which is leafy in the middle. The leaves are flat, 4 to 25 mm, straight and broad, with a wedge-shaped tip, they can be rough or smooth-edged. The sheath, or lower part of the leaf surrounding the stem, is pointed and longer than the flower cluster. The garlic bulb is usually a compound bulb, bulbs are large, spherical to oblate, usually consisting of many fleshy, petal-shaped secondary bulbs closely arranged, the secondary bulbs are oval, and are covered with several layers of white to purplish membranous skins, the bulb skin color is either silky white or green. Leaves grow from the base, the leaf blade is wide strip-shaped to strip-shaped lanceolate, flat, the apex is long and tapering, shorter than the scape, the width is up to 2.5 cm, and the base is sheath-shaped.

 Allium sativum:drawing of plant The plant consists of a cluster of long flowers where the floral axis terminates in a single flower and contains few florets. Scape is solid, cylindrical, up to 60 cm high, covered with leaf sheath below the middle part; The involucre has a long beak with a length of 7~20 cm; umbrella-shaped inflorescence is densely beaded with several flowers; Pedicle is slender; Bracteoles are large, ovate, membranous; With a short tip; Flowers are often reddish; Tepals are lanceolate to ovoid-shaped, 3~4 mm long, the inner whorl is shorter, filaments are shorter than the perianth, the base is connate and attached to the perianth, the base of the inner whorl is enlarged, each side of the enlarged part has one tooth, and the tooth ends grow filiform, which is longer than the perianth and the cone shape of the outer whorl; Ovary is globose; Style does not protrude out of perianth. Its flowering period is in July.

 Allium sativum:drawing of plant Ecological environment: Allium sativum is native to Central to southern Asia, garlic is now cultivated worldwide.

 Growth characteristics: Allium sativum has a strong adaptability, cold resistance and photophobia. It is advisable to cultivate in fertile sandy loam with good drainage.

 Garlic bulbs Characters of herbs: The medicinal parts are the whole fresh bulb, the dried bulb, and the oil of garlic. In June, when the leaves are dry, dig out the bulb, remove sediment, ventilate and dry or bake until the skin is dry. Bulbs are oblate or short conical, with off-white or light brown membranous lodicule outside; Peel off the scales, there are 6 ~ 10 garlic cloves inside, which are whorled around the flower stem; The base of the stem is discoid, with many fibrous roots. Each garlic clove is coated with a film, and then peeled off to see white, plump, and juicy scales. It has a strong garlic smell and a spicy taste.

 Garlic bulbs Pharmacological actions: ①.antibacterial and anti-fungi, antibiotic action; ②.prevent blood clots, lower blood pressure, reduce high blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels; ③.reduce inflammation; ④.soothe the digestive tract; ⑤.treat colds and flu; ⑥.antioxidant; etc.

 Scientists also found garlic has antibacterial properties and antiviral properties, garlic can inhibit staph aureus strain which was resistant to both ampicillin and tetracycline, and it has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against many genera of bacteria, fungi and even viruses, for example, Bacillus, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Vibro, Pseudomonas, Mycobacteria, and enterococcus, garlic oil inhibit Helicobacter pylori, garlic components diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide exhibit concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against H pylori. Garlic helps treat yeast infections, garlic also has anti-inflammatory and worm-fighting properties, it works against some intestinal parasites. Garlic has a remarkable antibiotic action, its components allicin and other constituents of the volatile oil are highly antiseptic and antibiotic, which explains garlic's efficacy in severe infections such as dysentery. Antiviral activity of garlic is identified mainly from ajoene, allicin, allyl methyl thiosulfinate, and methyl ally thiosulfinate, and antiviral activity was tested with herpes simplex type 1, type 2, parainfluenza type 3, vaccinia, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human rhinovirus. Garlic cloves have antifungal activity against various Trichophyton, Microsporum, Aspergillus, and Candida species. Its component ajoene has an antimycotic action on a number of fungi, including Candida albicans, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis, cladosporium carrionii, Fonseaae pedrosoi, and Aspergillus niger.

 Fresh garlic at relatively high doses, about 5 cloves or more a day can reduce heart disease and atherosclerosis risk factors by lowering cholesterol levels, increasing fibrinolytic activity, and inhibiting blood from clotting, garlic reduces total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels (LDL), in addition, increase high-density-lipoprotein (HDL). Garlic benefits certain heart conditions, possibly by lowering blood pressure and especially if blood pressure is already high. Garlic also helps reduce the risk of blood clots by inhibiting platelet aggregation, it also activates fibrinolysis, the body's natural system for breaking down clots. Minced fresh garlic 4 grams or essential oil 8 mg help dietary attempts to reduce blood lipids and prevent age-related vessel changes, studies on garlic's antithrombotic actions and antiplatelet effects found that allicin and adenosine are the most potent antiplatelet constituents of garlic.

 Garlic has an antioxidant effect, potent antioxidants are found in garlic that protect cell membranes and DNA from damage, it has a strong antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals, stimulates the production of the liver's detoxifying enzymes that neutralize carcinogens, garlic can block nitrosomes, nitrosomes are carcinogens absorbed from food and water, so higher intake of garlic may reduce some cancer type risks, garlic can stimulate the production of a very potent antioxidant glutathione and detoxifier, garlic extract is a powerful scavenger of hydroxyl radical .OH and heating reduces its activity slightly. Garlic has the ability to inhibit the growth of cancer-causing nitrosamine, its organosulfur compounds can inhibit the induction and growth of cancer, these organosulfur compounds are identified as diallyl sulfides, it has inhibitory actions on the growth of tumor cells. Human population studies show that eating garlic regularly reduces the risk of esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and colon cancer, it is partly due to garlic's ability to reduce the formation of carcinogenic compounds, fresh garlic can reduce the nitrite content in gastric juice, in vivo and in vitro experiments of garlic and allicin analogues show that they can inhibit the growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria in gastric juice, garlic and its preparation can inhibit nitrate reductase from reducing NO3 to NO2-. Garlic and its sulfur compounds inhibit the growth of different types of cancer, especially breast and skin tumors.

 Besides, studies also found garlic could correct digestive system disorders, skin disorders, whooping cough, and other properties.

 Garlic bulbs Medicinal efficacy: Traditionally garlic bulk was used as preventive medicine and cure-all, or even used to ward off vampires, witches, and other unwanted imaginary creatures, in the middle period of the 19th century the French scientist Louis Pasteur noted its antibiotic properties, and garlic is widely used as an antiseptic, and the garlic juice was used to infected wounds during World War II, garlic is recommended by herbalists for colds and recurrent colds, coughs, flu, bronchitis and chronic bronchitis, inflammatory respiratory conditions, whooping cough, ringworm, asthma, intestinal worms, fever, and digestive, gallbladder, and liver disorders. It is also used to relieve stomach and intestinal upset, gastrointestinal ailments, digestive disorders with flatulence and gastrointestinal spasms, menstrual pains, diabetes, as a tonic for diverse illnesses and debilities, atherosclerosis, and heart disease risks factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and blood clots. Externally garlic is used for corns, warts, calluses, otitis, muscle pain, neuralgia, arthritis, and sciatica. In Europe, garlic is approved for arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and raised levels of cholesterol, garlic is used internally as an adjuvant to dietetic measures for elevated lipid levels, for prevention of age-related vascular changes and arteriosclerosis. In homeopathy, garlic is used in conditions of upper respiratory tract inflammation, digestive complaints, and muscle rheumatism in the lumbar region. In TCM works record, the herb garlic warms the middle and free stagnation, detoxification, and kill parasites, it is indicated for cold and pain in the abdomen, dysentery, diarrhea, consumption or pulmonary tuberculosis, whooping cough, cold, carbuncle boil and pyogenic infections, periappendicular abscess, skin ulcers, snake bug bite, ancylostomiasis, enterobiasis, morbid leukorrhea, pruritus vulvae, malaria, pharyngitis, edema, etc.

 Administration of Garlic (Clove Garlic): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Garlic (Clove Garlic)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books: Dosage: One to five fresh cloves a day is commonly recommended. One clove of garlic is about 4 grams, yields about 10 milligrams of alliin and a total allicin potential of 4,000 micrograms. Aged garlic extract is taken in dosages of 10 to 20 grams daily. The average daily dose is 4 grams of fresh garlic or 8 mg of essential oil, one fresh garlic clove, 1 to 2 times daily. Garlic should be hung in plaits in a dry place for storage. In TCM works, the dose is recommended as, internally as water decoction, 4.5 to 9 grams, or take as fresh garlic, as simmer garlic, or smashed and prepare as a pill. Externally, mashed and apply a coating, suppository, or use a garlic slice for moxibustion.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Garlic is safe and used as food since ancient times, allergic reactions are rare, and rare negative reactions are digestive tract discomfort, a burning sensation in the mouth, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can also occur. There is no harm to pregnant women taking medicinal doses of garlic, but it has been used as an abortion-inducing agent in some cultures and may affect the menstrual cycle or uterus, pregnant women may want to avoid medicinal doses of garlic. The odor of garlic on the skin and breath will certainly not harm. In TCM works, it is advised that individuals with Yin deficiency and excessive fire, as well as eye diseases, oral and teeth diseases, throat and tongue, and seasonal disease, are forbidden to eat.

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