Introduction of Henna:henna flower and henna leaves.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Henna, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Lawsonia inermis L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Henna, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Henna(Smooth Lawsonia).

Henna flowers English Name: Henna.
 Latin Name: Lawsonia inermis L., sometimes referred to as Lawsonia inermis forma alba LAM.
 Common Names: Alcanna, Jamaica Mignonette, Mignonette Tree, Reseda, Henne, Mehndi, Mendee, Smooth Lawsonia, Egyptian Privet.
 Property and flavor: 

 Brief introduction: Henna is the aerial part of Lawsonia inermis, traditionally it is used as a red dye. External formulation made of henna is also used to treat eczema, skin sores, and scabies infestations.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Henna as the leaves and flower of the species (1).Lawsonia inermis L. It is a plant species of the Lawsonia genus, the Lythraceae family (loosestrife family). The leaves and flowers are used. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Lawsonia inermis L.

 Lawsonia inermis:growing tree Botanical description: Lawsonia inermis is a deciduous glabrous shrub, it can grow up to 2 to 6 meters high, with partly thorny; Branchlets are slightly 4-angled. Leaves are alternately opposite, thinly coriaceous, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 1.5~5 cm long and 1~2 cm wide, with a short apex, cuneate (wedge-shaped) or tapered base into petiole, 5 pairs of lateral veins, slender and slightly convex on both sides.

 Inflorescence can be up to 40 cm long, flowers are in small groups of 4 panicles and yellowy-white to brick-red; Flowers are extremely fragrant, white or rose-red to scarlet, about 6 mm in diameter, reaching 8~10 mm in full bloom; Calyx is top-shaped, 2~5 mm long, 4-parted, lobes are broadly ovate-triangular; Petals 4, thick, very wrinkled, yellowish-white to brick-red, slightly longer than calyx dehiscence, the margin is involucrate, dentate; Stamens are usually 8, arranged in pairs, filaments are filiform, twice as long as calyx lobes; Ovary is nearly spherical, style is filiform, slightly longer than stamens, stigma subulate.

 Lawsonia inermis:flowering and fruiting tree The capsularfruit is oblate, 6~7 mm in diameter, usually with 4 dents; Seeds are numerous, thick, small, triangular, and spire-shaped, the seed skin is spongy at the tip. Its flowering period is from June to October, fruiting in December.

 Ecological environment: Lawsonia inermis is native to East Africa and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated all over the world, with strong adaptability and a wide range of suitable growth. Flowers are very fragrant and can be planted in gardens for viewing.

 Lawsonia inermis:flowers Growth characteristics: Lawsonia inermis is usually propagated by seeds or by nutrition. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 25~30 °C (Celsius, or 77~86 degrees Fahrenheit). Because the seeds are small, the soil of the seedbed should be finely leveled and properly compacted. The seeds should be scattered on the soil surface, and then covered with a polyethylene film. After germination, the film should be removed. If the seeds are sowed too deeply, such as 2.5 cm, they will not germinate. Nutrition propagation means cutting semi-lignified branches for cutting, and the rooting rate can reach 50-95%. When cutting, the rooting rate of horizontal cuttings is 2-4 times higher than that of vertical cuttings.

 Lawsonia inermis:leaves and flowers Pharmacological actions: ①.hair-dying; ②.a source of tannins; ③.bactericidal activity; ④.nematode killing activity; ⑤.prevention and treatment of diseases; etc.

 Hair dyeing and hair care: The leaves of Lawsonia inermis are one of the earliest plant hair dyes used for hair dyeing. It can be used for hair dyeing and hair care. It is non-toxic, non-allergic, and non-irritating, and can be used for hair dyes and shampoo. Henna is popular in the world as a colorant and hair care agent. The herb is widely used in many cosmetics. For example, the hair care shampoo contains neutral henna saps, and the related shampoo also contains henna saps as a hair care agent.

 Henna's hair-dying properties are attributed to its component lawsone, a paste made with hot water and powdered leaves could color the hair, add lemon juice or sour milk can bring deeper colors. Henna can dye white hair light blond, ash-blond hair medium red, blond hair to blond hair with reddish simmers, brownish hair red, chestnut brown hair mahogany red, dark brown hair brown with a reddish sheen, black hair is not influenced.

 Henna contains astringent component tannins, it tightens tissue and explains its folk use for skin disorders such as eczema and sores and for mouth inflammation. But the herb is not recommended for these purposes anymore.

 Bactericidal activity: henna flower has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, such as obvious inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus Niger, and Candida albicans. The bark extract in diluted concentration has antibacterial activity against Microsporum gypsum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and 13 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and the bactericidal activity remains unchanged after a high temperature and long storage. Peanut rust, the pathogen of leaf rust of peanut, can be effectively controlled by the extract of henna flower, and the yield can be increased by 15.42-39.84%.

 Nematode killing activity: Using the methanol extract of henna flowers, leaves, stems, and buds with the concentration of 1:5 or 4 mg/L, the mortality rate of nematode larvae reached 67~100%, while that of seed oil was 50~70%.

 Prevention and treatment of diseases: In ancient times, the West Asians used the bark of Lawsonia inermis to treat jaundice and psychosis; In some areas of the Middle East and Asia, crushing and external application of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis has the effects of relieving pain, detumescence and suppuration for the treatment of paronychia of hands and feet. The ointment prepared by grounding the leaves into a powder has the effects of diminishing inflammation and astringing, and can be used to treat trauma and various skin diseases. Because the structure of henna ketone is similar to vitamin K, it has a hemostatic effect. The seed extract has a slow stimulating effect on the brain, and can be used for the treatment of poor memory or general mental insufficiency; In Nigeria, the roots of Lawsonia inermis are used as an abortifacient.

 Medicinal efficacy: Henna was used as a reddish tint for nails to beards, palms, and even horse manes. External formulation made of henna is also used to treat eczema, skin sores, and scabies infestations.

 Flowers are extremely fragrant. Besides being planted in gardens for ornamental purposes, their leaves can be used as red dyes. Flowers can be used to extract essential oil and extract balm for cosmetics. West Asians use their bark to treat jaundice and psychosis. In folk medicine, the herb is used externally for eczema, scabies, fungal infections, and ulcers. It is also used for amoebic dysentery(amebic dysentery) and gastrointestinal ulcers. In African folk medicine, it is used as an abortifacient. The herb is also contained in facial and hair lotions and is used to treat dandruff.

 Administration of Henna (Smooth Lawsonia): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Henna (Smooth Lawsonia)
Herbal classic books: For internal use, 3 grams of powder leaves to be taken daily, for amebiasis and ulcers. Henna is used rarely for internal use in ground form or as an infusion, henna is applied externally as an ingredient in hair and skin lotions.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: No serious adverse reactions to external formulations of henna are reported. Stomach complaints are possible negative effects due to the tannin content.




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