Introduction of Hibiscus:Red sorrel or Roselle Calyx.
✵The article gives records of the herb Hibiscus, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Hibiscus sabdariffa L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Hibiscus, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Hibiscus.
Latin Name: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Common Names: Jamaica sorrel, Karkade, Red sorrel, Red tea, Roselle juice, Sudanese tea, Roselle Calyx
Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sour.
Brief introduction: The Hibiscus sabdariffa has ruby-red flowers, it is an annual plant native to tropical Africa. Today it grows in tropical climates from Sri Lanka to Mexico. The part of the flower used medicinally are the calyxes, or outer floral envelopes, which are picked while still immature, then dried.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Hibiscus as the flowers of the species (1). Hibiscus sabdariffa L. It is a plant species of the Pimpinella genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family). The dried fruit and essential oil from the mature fruit are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Botanical description: Hibiscus sabdariffa is an annual upright herbaceous plant, it grows up to 2 meters tall, with lavender stems and glabrous stems. The leaves are heteromorphic, the lower leaves are ovate and undivided, the upper leaves are palmately 3-parted, the lobes are lanceolate, 2~8 cm long and 5~15 mm wide, serrated, the apex is blunt or acuminate, the base is round to wide wedge-shaped, both surfaces are glabrous, the main veins are 3~5, and the middle ribs on the back are glandular; Petiole is 2~8 cm long, sparsely villous; Stipules are linear, about 1 cm long, sparsely villous.
Flowers are solitary and grow in leaf axils, nearly sessile; Bracteoles 8~12, red, fleshy, lanceolate, 5~10 mm long and 2~3 mm wide, sparsely hirsute, with spiny appendages near the apex, and the base is connate with the calyx; Calyx is cup-shaped, lilac, about 1 cm in diameter, sparsely pricked and hirsute, connate at 1/3 of the base, 5 lobes, triangular acuminate, 1~2 cm long; Flowers are yellow, deep red at the base of the inner surface, 6~7 cm in diameter.
Capsularfruits are ovoid, about 1.5 cm in diameter, densely hirsute, and have 5 valves; Seeds are reniform and glabrous. Its flowering period is in summer and autumn.
Ecological environment: Hibiscus sabdariffa is native to tropical Africa. Now it is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries between 30 north latitudes and 30 south latitudes in the world.
Growth characteristics: Hibiscus sabdariffa prefers light, the temperature below 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit) is unfavorable to seed germination and seedling growth, and it is not resistant to frost. With strong adaptability, drought resistance, and barren resistance, it can grow in sandy or clayey soil, and it is suitable for replanting in flat fields or slopes of red soil and laterite. However, deep soil, good irrigation and drainage, and fertile soil are conducive to high yield.
Characters of herbs: Roselle Calyx is slightly conical or irregular, with a length of 2.5~4 cm and a diameter of about 2 cm. The calyx is purple-red to purple-black, 5-lobed, and the lobes are lanceolate. The bracteoles healing with the calyx can be seen in the lower part, and the bracteoles are about 10-lobed and lanceolate. The base has a cavity left after the fruit is removed. Corolla is yellow-brown, with linear stripes on the outer surface, a tawny base on the inner surface, and occasionally covered with sparse coarse hair. The herb texture is light and crisp. It has a slightly fragrant fragrance and tastes sour.
Pharmacological actions: ①.laxative effect; ②.diuretic effects; ③.lower blood pressure; ④.eliminate risks of kidney stone; etc.
Hibiscus has a slight laxative effect and diuretic effect, according to studies, its mild laxative action is attributed to its plant acids, mainly hibiscus acid, and oxalic, malic, citric, and tartaric acids, but this laxative effect is mild so drinking hibiscus tea could not bring much laxative relief. But at high concentration, it may be constipating and inhibiting intestinal motility.
Hibiscus can lower blood pressure in animal studies with large amounts, but whether drinking hibiscus tea will reduce blood pressure is not very sure.
Studies in Thailand found that hibiscus juice drink 16 grams daily can significantly decrease certain salts through urine, as the concentration of certain salts in the urine can increase the risk of kidney stones, so it is helpful to eliminate risks of kidney stones.
Medicinal efficacy: Hibiscus was used by African folk healers for reducing muscle spasms, fighting infections, encouraging the flow of urine as a diuretic, the leaves are used as a skin emollient, and Egyptians use it to treat nerve and heart disorders. Hibiscus is used for its distinctive red color and refreshing in Western countries, as a herbal tea with a tart taste, it is also used to prepare jams, jellies, beverages, and other foods, and used in perfumes and sachets. In folk medicine, the hibiscus flower is used for loss of appetite, and for colds that affect the respiratory tract and stomach. In TCM works, the herb is recorded astringing lung for relieving cough, lower the blood pressure, dispel the effects of alcohol, it is indicated for cough due to deficiency of the lung, hypertension or high blood pressure, drunkenness.
Administration of Hibiscus (Roselle Calyx):
Administration Guide of Hibiscus (Roselle Calyx)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
Dosage: An infusion is made using 1.5 grams of dried herb per cup of water. To make a tea, pour boiling water over 1.5 grams of comminuted herb and strain after 5 to 10 minutes. To use the commercial tea bags containing hibiscus, follow the package instructions. In TCM works, the herb is recommended internally as water decoction, 9~15 grams, or soak in boiling water.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Hibiscus flower has been used for generations, and it has no apparent ill effect. A common drink in Sudan made from hibiscus significantly reduced the effectiveness of chloroquine, so normally the herb should be avoided in the condition chloroquine is used.
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1.Introduction of Hibiscus:Red sorrel or Roselle Calyx.