✵The article gives records of the herb Hops, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Humulus lupulus L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Hops, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Hops.
Latin Name: Humulus lupulus L.
Common Names: Common hops, humulus, lupulin, Hop Bine, Houblon, Lupuli strobilus, etc.
Property and flavor: slight cool in nature, very strong odor, tastes bitter or extremely bitter.
Brief introduction: Humulus lupulus is a perennial vine native to North America, Europe, and Asia, now it is cultivated around the world. The dried female inflorescence, fruit, and separated glandular hairs are used medicinally. In ancient times, hops pickers tend to become tired, so hops were used as a stuffing material in sleep pillows or dream pillows to help individuals who suffer from insomniacs and restless sleepers.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Hops as the fruit of the species (1). Humulus lupulus L. It is a plant species of the Humulus genus, the Moraceae family (mulberry family). The whole dried female inflorescence is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Humulus lupulus L.
Botanical description: Humulus lupulus is a perennial twining herb, it grows more than 10 meters long. All the plants are barbed, and the stems, branches, and petioles have dense fine hairs. Leaves are opposite; the petiole is not longer than the leaf blade; The leaves are papery, oval, about 4~8 cm wide, heart-shaped or round at the base, 3-5-parted or indehiscent, coarsely serrated at the edge, densely covered with small bristles on the upper surface, sparsely hairy and small yellow oil spots on the back surface.
Flowers are unisexual and dioecious; Male inflorescences are panicles, perianth segments 5, stamens 5, yellow-green; Every 2 female flowers grow in the axil of a bract, and bracts are arranged in a tile shape, forming a short spike which is nearly round.
The clusters are cone-shaped, 3~4 cm long, the persistent bracts are membranous and enlarged, and there are yellow glands, fragrant. Achenes are oblate, brown, and surrounded by enlarged bracts. Its flowering period is from May to June and fruiting from June to September.
Ecological environment: Humulus lupulus is native to Europe, America, and Asia. There are more than 20 countries in the world that produce commercial hops. Hops is mainly produced in USA (the United States of America), Czech, Slovakia, United Kingdom (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Yugoslavia, and other countries.
Growth characteristics: Humulus lupulus prefers cold and dry climates and is cold-resistant. The root can endure -36-50 °C (Celsius, or -32.8~122 degrees Fahrenheit), the bud can endure -20 °C (Celsius, or -4 degrees Fahrenheit), and the summer temperature suitable for growth is 16-23 °C (Celsius, or 60.8~73.4 degrees Fahrenheit). The plant is drought-resistant, waterlogging-resistant, and has strong salt-alkali resistance. It is sensitive to light reaction, the critical length of sunshine is 14~17 hours. Soybean should be used as the first crop, and it can be intercropped with peanuts, ginger, sugar beets, and potatoes. Choose sunny, high, and dry terrain, deep soil layer, loose and fertile. Acidic soil with rich organic matter and good drainage are suitable. Life span is 15~30 years, up to about 60 years.
Characters of herbs: The hops herb is the immature fruit ears with flowers, this part is also known as strobiles. In summer and autumn, when the fruit ears are green and slightly yellow, they should be picked, dried, and the temperature should not exceed 45 °C (Celsius, or 113 degrees Fahrenheit). The herb should not be stored for longer than a year because the lupulin is prone to oxidation. Hops stored at room temperature lose their effectiveness and produce a bad-smelling chemical, valeric acid. Commercial hops are stored in the cold, protected from oxygen. To minimize exposure to oxygen, put fresh but well-dried hops in a plastic bag. Before sealing the bag, expel as much air as possible, but don't crush the hops in the process.
The herb is flattened spherical shape, pale yellow, the membranous bracts are arranged in tile shape, oval or egg-shaped, 0.5~1.2 cm long and 0.3~0.8 cm wide, translucent, with brownish yellow glandular dots visible to light. There are 2 tiny female flowers or 1~2 flat achenes in the axils of bracts. The herb is slightly fragrant, and tastes slightly sweet and bitter.
Hops has some neurosedative properties, one volatile chemical dimethylvinyl carbino was identified in its bitter principle.
Hops has some estrogenic activity and are used in skin softening creams, one component 8-prenylnaringenin was identified for its phytoestrogenic property, normally ethanol extract of hops contains a significant amount of phytoestrogens with moderate estrogenic bioactivity.
Hops has a digestive aid property, and it was used for indigestion and stimulating the appetite.
The bitter acids in hops fight certain bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus and fungi, its components lupulone and humulone exhibit gram-positive and gram-negative antibacterial properties, and its component hexahydrocolupulonbe is active against gram-positive bacteria and mycobacteria, its essential oil and solvent extract is active against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, the essential oil was found to have antifungal effects against Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, so it explains why hops help preserve beer and helpful for other infectious diseases.
Hops chalcones components xanthohumol and xanthohumol B were identified could inhibit diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity. Over accumulation of triacylglycerol has been associated with increased risk for conditions including fatty liver, obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia, scientists found that DGAT is exclusively involved in the formation of triacylglycerol.
A beta acid component of hops, colupulone, produce a small but significant decrease in serum glucose in lab mice test.
Hops may inhibit tumor cell growth via the estrogenic effect of its phytoestrogen components. Hops flavonoids may inhibit cancer growth at more than one stage of the cell cycle, and inhibition of DNA synthesis may be one of the mechanisms by which some hop flavonoids exert their antiproliferative activity, among six flavonoids, xanthohumol was found the most effective antiproliferative agent in the human breast, colon, and ovarian cancer cells. Except for flavonoids, its alpha acid humulone was found to inhibit the growth of monoblastic leukemia cells in vitro while enhancing the differentiation-inducing action of vitamin D3.
Medicinal efficacy: Except used as a bitter to prepare beer, hops was used in folk medicine for restlessness, nervous diarrhea, appetite loss, and intestinal cramping.
In ancient times, hops were used as a stuffing material in sleep pillows or dream pillows to help individuals who suffer from insomniacs and restless sleepers, for hops pickers tend to become unusually tired, it was used as a sedative in North America in the 19th century. Today hops is recommended by herbalists as a sleep aid, for restlessness, stress, and extreme excitability. Hops infusions are used to stimulate the appetite and ease digestion. Hops extracts are occasionally added to skin creams and lotions for their skin-softening properties. In Europe, hops are approved for mood disturbances such as agitation, anxiety, nervousness, and restlessness, and sleep disturbances such as insomnia. In folk medicine, it is used internally for nerve pain, priapism, inflammation of the intestinal mucous membrane, tension headaches, and externally for ulcus cruris, ulcers, and skin abrasions. In homeopathy, it is used in preparations for nervousness and insomnia.
TCM works recorded the herb functions to benefit the stomach and aid digestion, inducing diuresis to reduce edema, anti-consumption, and anti-inflammation. It is indicated for indigestion, ventosity or abdominal distension, edema, cystitis or inflammation of the urinary bladder, pulmonary tuberculosis, cough, insomnia, leprosy, etc.
Administration of Hops (humulus):
Administration Guide of Hops (humulus)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
Dosage: For most indications, a single dose of 0.5 grams is given. Drink a cup of tea before bedtime for 1 to 3 days. Fresh hops are used as a digestive aid, and dried and aged hops are used as a sedative. To prepare an infusion, boiling water is poured over the ground hop cones and left to steep for 10 to 15 minutes, 1 teaspoonful is equal to 0.4 grams of herb. TCM works recommended the herb internally as a water decoction, 3~9 grams. Hops and its preparations should be protected from light and moisture in well-sealed containers for storage.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The typically recommended amounts of hops are not likely to cause side effects. The FDA includes hops on its list of foods "Generally Recognized As Safe". People who pick hops run the risk of a skin reaction, a rash, if they develop a sensitivity to them. Its airborne pollen is responsible for respiratory tract allergies. Hops should be avoided during pregnancy and depression.