Introduction of Mustard:brown mustard, white mustard, black mustard.
✵The article gives records of the herb Mustard, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source three plant species, ①.Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss., ②.Brassica alba L.Rabenh.,③.Brassica nigra L.Koch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plant species, the features of the herb Mustard, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Mustard.
Latin Name: Black mustard:Brassica nigra L.Koch. Brown mustard:Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss., sometimes referred to as Sinapis juncea L.White mustard:Brassica alba L.Rabenh,sometimes referred to as Sinapis alba L.
Common Names: Yellow mustard, brown mustard, white mustard, black mustard.
Property and flavor: The seed is heat in nature, it tastes pungent, mild toxicity.
Brief introduction: Mustard plants yield seeds that after ripening and drying are highly valued for culinary and herb purposes. Brown mustard is native to Asia. White mustard and black mustard are native to Eurasia. All three flowering plants are now cultivated worldwide. The fixed oil from brown and black mustard yields, after special processing, what is known as volatile mustard oil, which contains high concentrations of an important ingredient called allyl isothiocyanate.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Mustard as the dried fruit of the species (1).Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss.,(2).Brassica alba L.Rabenh.,(3).Brassica nigra L.Koch. They are plant species of the Sinapis genus, the Brassicaceae family (Cruciferae, mustard family). The seeds are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss.
Botanical description: Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss. is an annual herb, it grows up to 50~150 cm tall. Glabrous, sometimes bristly, often powdery. Stems are branched. The petioles of the basal leaves have small lobes; the leaves are broadly ovate to obovate, 15~35 cm long, 5~17 cm wide, the apex is rounded and obtuse, not divided or the large-head feather crack, with notches or teeth on the edge; the lower leaves are smaller, with notches, sometimes obtusely serrate, not clasping; upper leaves are narrowly needle-shaped to bar-shaped, with inconspicuous sparse teeth or entire-edge.
Racemes are elongated after flowering; flowers are pale yellow; petals 4, bright yellow, broadly elliptic or broadly cuneate, up to 1.1~1.4 cm long, the apex is truncated, entire-edge, clawed at base; 6 stamens, 4 stamens are long, and 2 stamens are Short, long stamens are 8 mm long, short stamens are 6 mm long; pistil 1, the ovary is cylindrical, about 1 mm long, style is thin, stigma is capitate. The fruit is strip-shaped, 3~5.5 cm long, with a thin beak, 6~12 mm long; the fruit pedicel is 5~15 mm long. Seeds are nearly spherical, l~1.8 mm in diameter, bright yellow to yellowish brown, a few are dark reddish brown, and the surface is reticulated. The flowering period is April to May, and the fruiting period is May to June.
Seeds are nearly spherical, 1~2 mm in diameter. The surface is yellow to yellow-brown, a few are dark reddish-brown, finely reticulated, hilum is punctate. The seed coat is thin and brittle, the cotyledons are folded and oily. The smell is slightly weak. After grounding, add water and moisten it, which will produce a strong and specific odor, and the taste is extremely spicy. The seeds of better grades are full, uniform, bright yellow, and free of impurities. The seed of Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss. is commonly known as brown mustard seeds.
Ecological environment: Brassica juncea L.Czern.et Coss. is native to China, it is a commonly used vegetable cultivated all over the country.
Growth characteristics: The plant requirements for the climate and soil are not strict, but it is better to cultivate in fertile and moist sandy loam, and it will not grow well in barren soil.
(2).Brassica alba L.Rabenh.
Botanical description: Brassica alba L.Rabenh. is an annual plant, the lower part of the plant is covered in stiff, single hairs. The thin root is yellow to white and branched. The root produces a 30 to 60 cm high, upright, grooved, and branched stem. The leaves are 4 to 10 cm long, petiolate, lyrate, pinnatifid to pinnatisect, and always have 2 to 3 indented-denate lobed pinna.
The flowers form an umbelliferous-racemous inflorescence. The flowers are on 3 to 7 mm long, stiff-haired pedicles. When in bloom, the 4 narrow, obtuse sepals lie horizontally. There are 3 green, ovate nectaries at the base of the stamens. The fruit is a 2 to 4 cm long bristly pod, divided into two chambers. Each chamber contains two to three 2.5 mm thick seeds. The chamber ends with a large curled lip. The seeds vary from brown to white and are arranged in opposite rows. The seed of Brassica alba L.Rabenh. is commonly known as white mustard seeds.
Ecological environment: The plant has been introduced and naturalized in Europe and Siberia, East Asia, and America. The areas of cultivation are western and Northern Europe and the Northern USA (the United States of America)
(3).Brassica nigra L.Koch.
Botanical description: Brassica nigra L.Koch. is an annual that grows up to 1 meter tall and is slim-branched with thin fusiform roots. The stem grows up to 1 meter. It is almost round and bristly-haired at the base, with a bluish bloom toward the top. The stem is glabrous with upright branches almost in bushels. The leaves are petiolate, up to 12 cm long and 5 cm wide. The lower leaves are grass-green and covered in 1 mm long bristles. They are pinnatifid and densely dentate, with 2 to 4 obtuse lobes on each side and a large end section. The upper stem and branch leaves are smaller, usually glabrous and blue-green, ovate or lanceolate, and slightly dentate.
The inflorescences are terminal or axillary and compressed into a semisphere. The flowers have 4 free sepals, 4 free petals, 6 stamens, and 1 ovary. The sepals are 3.5 to 4.5 mm long and appear linear because of slits on the edge. They are yellowish-green, usually glabrous, upright, and slightly splayed. The yellow petals are twice as long as the calyx, obovate, rounded at the tip, and narrowed to a stem at the base. The ovary is on the receptacle. The style is thin and has a semiglobose, cushionlike stigma. The fruit is an upright pod, which is linear and rounded or angular with a thin dividing wall. It is 10 to 25 mm long and pressed onto the stem. The seed is globose, brown, matte, and punctate. The seed of Brassica nigra L.Koch. is commonly known as black mustard seeds.
Ecological environment: Black mustard grows in temperate regions worldwide. Black mustard is also known as brown mustard or red mustard.
Characters of herbs: Brown mustard seeds are nearly spherical, 1~2 mm in diameter. The surface is yellow to yellow-brown, a few are dark reddish-brown, finely reticulated, hilum is punctate. The seed coat is thin and brittle, the cotyledons are folded and oily. The odor is slightly weak. After grinding, add water and moisten it, which will produce a strong and specific odor, and the taste is extremely spicy. The seeds of better grades are full, uniform, bright yellow, and free of impurities.
Pharmacological actions: ①.counterirritant and rebefacient; ②.relieve congestion; ③.antibacterial and anti-fungi;etc.
Volatile mustard oil contains allyl isothiocyanate, this component irritates, reddens, and can blister the skin when left on for long enough, it rubefacient dilates surface blood vessels, increasing the blood supply to the area, reddening it, helping it to heal, and helping the muscles to relax, the oil must be properly diluted, such as 1 part oil to 50 parts diluent for these purposes, the FDA considers volatile mustard oil as a safe and effective counterirritant in concentrations of 0.5 to 5 percent.
Mustard oil can help relieve congestion in the lung when applied externally in the form of an ointment or liniment. Mustard oil fights bacteria and fungi, mustard seeds ingested whole can ease constipation and reduce stomach upset caused by acid indigestion.
Medicinal efficacy: Mustard seed is a popular condiment in most parts of the globe. Its seeds and oil were used in poultice, plaster, and other external formulations for upper respiratory tract congestion, joint pain, inflammation, and pain in the lower back or lumbar region. It is used in internal formulations for improving digestion and stimulating the appetite, as well as for use as diuretics, as emetics for vomiting agents, and to aid fat metabolism.
White mustard seed is approved in Europe for the common cold, cough and bronchitis, and rheumatism. Externally, white mustard is used in poultices for congestion of the respiratory tract, for topical hyperemization of the skin as well as for segment therapy of chronic degenerative disease affecting the joints and soft tissue.
Mustard oil is used in some dog and cat repellents, lubricants, and other commercial preparations. Mustard seeds are the flavoring in table mustard, mustard greens are eaten as a salad ingredient, and mustard oil serves as a flavoring in many beverages and foods.
TCM works recorded the herb mustard seed functions warm the middle energizer and dissipate cold, reduce phlegm, promote defecation and urination, free channels and reduce the swelling. It is indicated for wind cold vomiting, cold pain in the heart and abdomen, cough with much phlegm, lockjaw, deafness, pharyngitis (throat obstruction), rheumatoid pain, numbness of limb, amenia, caruncle swelling, scrofula, etc.
Administration of Mustard (brown mustard,white mustard,black mustard):
Administration Guide of Mustard (brown mustard,white mustard,black mustard)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books:
Dosage: Mustard oil is applied externally in concentrations of 0.5 to 5 percent, up to three or four times per day. To relieve chest congestion, two handfuls of ground mustard seed are mixed with lukewarm water to make a paste, this paste is spread on a cloth and placed on the chest, the cloth is removed when a strong burning sensation is felt. TCM works recommended the herb internally as water decoction, 3~9 grams, or prepared to pill, or powder. Externally proper amount, ground into a fine powder and apply a coating. The herb must be protected from light and moisture.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Mustard seed preparations can cause excessive skin irritation, use them sparingly, in diluted form only, and for short periods of time. Blistering, pain, ulceration, and tissue damage may develop if the preparation is left on too long. Never taste or inhale the undiluted oil, it qualifies as one of the most toxic essential oils known. In large doses the mustard oil glycosides will cause vomiting, and gastrointestinal complaints could appear following the intake of large quantities, due to the mucous membrane-irritating effect of the Mustard oil. Individuals with severe circulation disorders, varicose veins, or other venous disorders should not use mustard-oil preparations. White mustard preparations should not be used in children under 6 years of age.
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1.Introduction of Mustard:brown mustard, white mustard, black mustard.