Introduction of Mullein:Herb of Flannel Mullein or candleflower.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Mullein, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Verbascum thapsus L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Mullein, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Mullein(Herb of Flannel Mullein).

Verbascum thapsus:flower English Name: Mullein.
 Latin Name: Verbascum thapsus L. and occasionally other Verbascum species such as Verbascum thapsiforme Schrad.
 Common Names: Aaron's rod, candleflower, candlewick, feltwort, flannel plant, Herb of Flannel Mullein, hightaper, longwort, shepherd's staff, torches, velvet dock. Verbascum thapsiforme:European or orange mullein.
 Property and flavor: The herb is cool in nature, it tastes pungent and bitter, mild toxicity.

 Brief introduction: The Verbascum thapsus is a hardy biennial first produces large elliptical gray-green woolly leaves that form a basal rosette, and in the second year sends up a stiff stem reaching four feet or more that is crowned by a grand cylindrical spike of medium-sized yellow flowers. Primarily, the flowers and leaves are used medicinally. Mullein grows worldwide in temperate climates.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Mullein as the flowers and leaves of the species (1). Verbascum thapsus L. It is a plant species of the Verbascum genus, the Scrophulariaceae family (figwort family). The flowers and leaves are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Verbascum thapsus L.

 Verbascum thapsus:growing plants Botanical description: Verbascum thapsus is a biennial herb, it grows up to 1.5 meters. The whole plant is covered with dense and thick light gray-yellow stellate hairs. Basal leaves and lower cauline leaves are oblanceolate-oblong, up to 15 cm long, about 6 cm wide, the apex is tapered, base tapering into stalk-like, margins are with shallow crenations; upper cauline leaves reduced to oblong to ovate-oblong, the base extends into narrow wings.

 The spike is terete, up to 25 cm long, with dense flowers; pedicels are short; bracts are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate; the calyx is 5-lobed and almost to the base, lobes are narrowly lanceolate; corolla is yellow, 1~2 cm in diameter, radial shape, lobes 5, the inner surface is smooth, the outer surface is covered with stellate hairs; stamens 5, the filaments of the rear 2 are hairy, and the front 2 are smooth, and the anthers are slightly descended into a zigzag. The capsular fruit is ovate, about as long as the persistent calyx, the apex is obtuse. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to October.

 Verbascum thapsus:flowers Ecological environment: Verbascum thapsus grows in hillside grassland, riparian grassland, and wasteland. It is widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, in China it grows in the west including Tibet and southwest areas with an altitude of 1,400~3,200 meters.

 Growth characteristics: Verbascum thapsus prefers a warm, sunny, and relatively dry environment. Loose, fertile sandy soil is better.

 Verbascum thapsus:flowering plants Pharmacological actions: ①.mucilage source; ②.tannins and astringent actions; ③.anti-inflammatory action; ④.clearing congestion; ⑤.expectorant action;etc.

 Mullein contains mucilage that swells upon contact with liquid, rendering it slippery and soothing and softening to irritated skin and mucous membranes, but the amount of mucilage is relatively small, and do not expect dramatic effects.

 Mullein contains tannins, tannins are astringent substances that tighten tissue and reduce oozing and bleeding, externally used to relieve wounds and hemorrhoids, which explains its traditional use for diarrhea by reducing inflammation in the intestines.

 Mullein contains saponins, it has an anti-inflammatory action, and its volatile oil and saponins explain its traditional use for clearing congestion in coughs and colds. The herb has an expectorant action and is believed to loosen sticky phlegm so that it is easier to cough up.

 Verbascum thapsus:flower Medicinal efficacy: The herb mullein was traditionally used as a remedy for respiratory problems such as cough, bronchitis, and asthma, as a tuberculosis remedy, soothing throat irritation, and clear congestion, to control diarrhea, as a diuretic to increase urine production, externally for treating wounds, calming hemorrhoidal pain and inflammation, softening and protecting the skin. The yellow flowers were once used as a blond hair dye, and the stems and leaves were combined to create candlewicks.

 In Europe, the herb mullein prepared from Verbascum densiflorum is approved for cough and bronchitis. In folk medicine, it was used internally for catarrh of the respiratory tract, bladder and kidney conditions, enteritis, rheumatism, coughs, flu, intestinal pain caused by colic, asthma, cystitis, hemorrhoids, dermatoses, and painful diarrhea. The plant is used externally for earache, ear furuncles, eczema of the auditory canal, middle ear infection, inflammatory skin diseases with itch, burns, eczema, weeping eczema, dermatitis, insect bites, and itching in the anal and genital regions.

 TCM works recorded the herb of flannel mullein functions clearing heat and detoxification, stanch bleeding, eliminating stasis to activate blood circulation. It is indicated for pneumonia, chronic appendicitis, sore poison, traumatic injury, and trauma bleeding.

 Administration of Mullein (Herb of Flannel Mullein): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Mullein (Herb of Flannel Mullein)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books: Dosage: An infusion is prepared using 3 to 4 teaspoons, about 1.5 to 2 grams of the flower per cup of water, and is drunk once or twice per day or used in a compress. To prepare tea, pour boiling water over 1.5 to 2 grams of finely cut herb and strain after 10 to 15 minutes (1 teaspoonful is equivalent to 0.5-gram herb). To prepare a tincture, add 20 grams of cut herb to 80 grams of 70% ethanol and leave to draw for 10 days. The daily dose is 3 to 4 grams of herb. The tincture dose is 20 to 30 drops, taken several times a day. TCM works recommend the herb mullein internally as water decoction, 10~15 grams, externally proper amount, ground into powder, or fresh herb is mashed and apply a coating. Mullein must be protected from light and particularly from moisture to prevent the herb from changing color to brown or dark brown due to the iridoid content.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The FDA lists mullein as "Generally Recognized As Safe"(GRAS) for food use. Prolonged use of any tannin-containing plant is unwise, there are no reports of significant adverse reactions linked to medicinal preparations made from the leaves, flowers, or roots, however. Avoid the seeds of this plant, they are toxic.

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