Introduction of Oak Bark:stave oak or American white oak.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Oak Bark, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Quercus alba L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Oak Bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Oak Bark(Stave oak).

Quercus alba English Name: Oak Bark.
 Latin Name: Quercus alba L.Quercus robur and Quercus petracea are also used.
 Common Names: Stave oak, stone oak, tanner's oak.
 Property and flavor: specific odor and tastes.

 Brief introduction: The smooth bark and occasionally the acorn of hundreds of species of the ancient oak genus Quercus found in the Northern Hemisphere have been used medicinally, including that of Quercus petraea(Matt.) Liebl.(winter oak) and Quercus robur L.(British oak). Of the seventy or so species native to North America, Quercus alba probably ranks as the most important for medicinal purposes. Deciduous forms bear lobed leaves.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Oak Bark as the dried fruit of the species (1).Quercus alba L. It is a plant species of the Quercus L. genus, the Fagaceae family (Cupuliferae, beech family). The dried bark is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Quercus alba L.

 Quercus alba:growing tree Botanical description: Quercus alba, commonly called white oak, the white oak is a deciduous, hardwood tree in the Fagaceae (beech) family. It is slow growing and can reach heights of 40 meters with 24 meters spread, but generally tops out at 24 to 30 meters. The shape is pyramidal when young, but matures into a substantial tree with a wide-spreading, rounded crown. Leaves have 7 to 9 deep rounded lobes. Leaves are pinkish in spring, but mature to dark green. Leaves are a light green above and much paler green below that will turn red or brown in autumn, some remain on the tree most of the winter.

 Insignificant yellowish-green flowers in separate male and female catkins appear in spring, shortly after the leaves emerge. Fruits are oval acorns with warty-scaled cups.

 Ecological environment: Quercus alba typically occurs in dry upland slopes and ledges as well as lowland valleys and ravines throughout USA (the United States of America), the tree is native to forested areas of eastern North America.

 Growth characteristics: White oak does not tolerate wet conditions and is best planted in well-drained sites with rich, moist, acidic loams in full sun. The roots are sensitive to soil disturbances, such as compaction and construction. Intolerant to salt in the soil and salt spray. Many birds and small mammals will utilize the white oak acorns as a food source as well as shelter.

 American Oak Barrels Ornamental value and other uses: White oak has strong germination power and a beautiful tree shape, and its leaves have obvious seasonal changes in autumn. It has high ornamental value and can be used as a garden greening tree species. Individual beauty or group beauty can be displayed through solitary, cluster, or group planting.

 White oak wood is hard, beautiful in pattern, wear-resistant, and corrosion-resistant, and can be used for furniture, decoration, vehicles, and other materials. The young leaves of white oak can be used to feed tussah silkworms, and the old leaves can be used as green manure. Oak and its branches are good fuel wood. Mushrooms and fungus can be cultivated using oak. White oak has strong adaptability, drought resistance, and barren resistance, and is widely used. Because it is a deep-rooted tree species with a well-developed root system and thick litter layer, it can effectively improve soil and prevent soil erosion.

 American oak barrels are mainly made of white oak (Quercus alba). This white oak has a relatively short growth cycle, loose wood structure, high air permeability, high tannin, and dryness. Compared with the French Quercus petraea, the American white oak has a wider planting area and grows in 18 states in USA (the United States of America), so the cost is lower. American oak has a wider grain and larger gaps and can be sawed directly with a saw, without the need to split along the fibers, and the material utilization rate will be higher. Typically, a French oak tree is only about 20 to 25 percent utilized, while an American oak tree is twice as utilized. American oak contains more lactones, so it will give the wine more unrestrained, rich flavors, such as vanilla, coconut, cumin, and so on.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.astringent; ②.mild antiseptic; ③.relieve inflammation.

 Quercus alba contains a large amount of an astringent tannin, quercitannic acid. It is recommended for its astringent and mild antiseptic actions. It tightens tissue, reduces oozing, and shields injured tissue by forming a protective coating. Tannins are believed to control or stop diarrhea by reducing inflammation in the intestines.

 Medicinal efficacy: The herb was used as a healing agent and an astringent wash for inflammatory skin conditions, oozing wounds, weeping eczema, bleeding hemorrhoids, bruises, varicose leg ulcers, chiblains, eye ailments, and sweaty feet. Gargles and mouth-washes were used for inflamed gums and sore throats, and decoctions were sipped for diarrhea and other stomach and intestinal ailments.

 The acorns served as a food staple for many Native American tribes. The tree's high-grade wood made it a favorite among early American furniture, whisky barrel, and shipbuilders.

 Administration of Oak Bark (Stave oak): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Oak Bark (Stave oak)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: A gargle or rinse is made with 2 tablespoons of oak bark per 500 ml of water and is used several times per day. The decoction is also used at room temperature as a compress or lotion, or is added to bathwater. Internally, a common daily dose is 3 grams, about 1 teaspoon in decoction form. Three capsules of 400 mg each are taken three times a day.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Oak bark apparently does not irritate the skin or mucous membranes or induce allergic reactions. Oak bark preparations should not be placed on large swaths of damaged skin. Oak baths should be avoided if you have large areas of damaged skin, fever or infectious disease, weeping eczema, hypertonia, or moderately serious cardiac insufficiency. Tannin-rich herbs should be avoided ingesting for prolonged periods, as poorly understood cancer risks. Oak bark pollen is a common allergen.

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