Introduction of Parsley:common parsley or garden parsley.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Parsley, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Petroselinum crispum., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Parsley, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Parsley(Common parsley).

parsley:fresh vegetable English Name: Parsley.
 Latin Name: Petroselinum crispum(Mill.) Nym., Petroselinum sativum Hoffm., Petroselinum hortense Hoffm.
 Common Names: Common parsley, fairy feathers, flat-leaf parsley, garden parsley, Italian parsley, rock parsley, rock selinon.
 Property and flavor: aromatic and fragrance, tastes pungent.

 Brief introduction: Many varieties of bright green aromatic parsley are cultivated worldwide. They are distinguished largely by whether the leaves are divided, featherlike, curly, or flat. The characteristically spicy tiny fruits are gray to grayish-brown. Small yellowish flowers grow in clusters. The leaves, seeds, juicy stems, and roots are used in cooking and medicine, as is an oil extracted separately through steam distillation of the herb and seed.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Parsley as the leaves and other parts of the species (1).Petroselinum crispum. It is a plant species of the Petroselinum genus, the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae, parsley family). The plant, root, and dried ripe fruits are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Petroselinum crispum.

 Petroselinum crispum:growing shrubs Botanical description: Petroselinum crispum is a biennial herb, smooth. The root is fusiform, sometimes thick. Stems are rounded, slightly grooved, 30~100 cm tall, branched above the middle, opposite or whorled, usually exceeding the central umbel. Leaves are dark green, with a bright surface, basal leaves and lower stem leaves have long stalks, 2~3 pinnatifid divisions, ultimate lobes are obovate, the base is cuneate, 3-lobed or deeply toothed; Upper leaves are 3-lobed, lobes are lanceolate-linear, entire-edge or 3-lobed.

 Umbel with 10-30 spokes, nearly equal length, about 2.5 cm, smooth; involucral bracts are 1~2, linear, sharp, leathery; Umbels with 20 flowers, involucral bracteoles 6~8. Linear or linear-subulate, about half as long as the flower stalk and close to it; petals are 0.5~0.7 mm long.

 The fruit is ovate, gray-brown, 2.5~3 mm long and 2 mm wide. Its flowering period is in June, fruiting in July.

 Petroselinum crispum:growing parsley in field Ecological environment: Petroselinum crispum is native to the Mediterranean region, it has a long history of cultivation in Europe and is now available all over the world; it is generally cultivated in vegetable gardens or a wild state.

 Growth characteristics: Parsley requires cool climates and moist conditions. The seeds need to absorb enough water to germinate. The germination temperature is 4 °C (Celsius, or 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit), and the optimum germination temperature is about 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit). Plant growth temperature is 15 to 20 °C (Celsius, or 59~68 degrees Fahrenheit). It has strong cold resistance, seedlings can endure low temperatures of -4 to -5 °C (Celsius, or 24.8~23 degrees Fahrenheit), and growing plants can tolerate short-term low temperatures of -7 to -10 °C (Celsius, or 19.4~14 degrees Fahrenheit). It is not heat-resistant, and it is prone to leggy when the temperature is high, the mesophyll becomes thin, and it is vulnerable to red spiders and other damage. When flower buds are differentiated, seedlings of a certain size are required. Generally, after the seedlings emerge, low temperatures below 5 °C (Celsius, or 41 degrees Fahrenheit) and longer sunshine are required to differentiate flower buds through the vernalization stage. Long sunshine can promote the formation of flower buds, and the bolting stage requires a higher temperature. Adequate light is required during the vegetative growth period. Intolerant of drought and waterlogging. It requires fertile loam or sandy loam with strong water retention and rich organic matter. It is more sensitive to boron fertilizer and is prone to crack stems when boron is deficient. The optimum soil pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) is 5~7.

 parsley:leaf vegetable Food Use: Parsley can be used as a garnish or as a seasoning. It is often seen in grilled chicken, pasta, salad, fish, thick soup, as long as parsley is added, the taste can become more fragrant.

 Characters of herbs: Parsley is the fresh or dried plant section of Petroselinum crispum, parsley root is the dried root of petroselinum crispum, and the fresh herb is harvested from cultivations. Parsley seed is the dried ripe fruit of petroselinum crispum.

 parsley:leaf Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic; ②.stimulate the uterus; ③.relieving gas; ④.breath freshener; ⑤.mild antibacterial and antifungal properties, etc.

 Parsley promotes urine production, diuretics are traditionally used to treat urinary tract infections and such potentially grave conditions as high blood pressure and fluid retention from congestive heart failure.

 Parsley components aiople and myristicin can stimulate the uterus and explain its use to promote menstruation.

 Parsley volatile oil relieves stomach and excess gas, its chlorophyll content was identified as responsible for its ancient use as a breath freshener.

 Studies found parsley has mild antibacterial and antifungal properties, explaining its slight antiseptic action.

 Medicinal efficacy: Parsley was traditionally used as a condiment and garnish, for centuries it is used to freshen the breath, soothe indigestion, generally settle the stomach after a meal, expel excess gas, reduce colicky stomach upset, as a diuretic it encourages urine production, stimulates the menstrual flow, increase breast milk production, used to treat arthritis, cough and cold-related congestion, liver and spleen disorders, other ailments. Parsley juice is used to treat kidney ailments, parsley oil is used to regulate menstrual flow. Bruised leaves are used externally for bruises, tumors, insect bites, lice and other parasitic infestations, and skin infections. Leaves are used to purportedly stimulate hair growth.

 In Europe, parsley herb and root is approved for infections of the urinary tract, kidney and bladder stones, the herb is used for flushing the efferent urinary tract and for the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. In folk medicine, parsley herb and root are used for gastrointestinal disorders, jaundice, kidney and bladder inflammation, as a diuretic, and an emmenagogue. Parsley fruit is used in folk medicine for menstrual disturbances, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, the kidneys and lower urinary tract, and as a digestive.

 Administration of Parsley (Common parsley): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Parsley (Common parsley)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: A decoction is prepared using 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried leaves or roots or 1 teaspoon, about 1.4 grams, bruised seeds per cup of water. To prepare parsley seed tea, do not let the water boil because the all-important volatile oil will quickly dissipate. As a diuretic, the leaves or roots are often taken in doses of 6 grams per day, 1 teaspoon of chopped root equals about 2 grams. Infusion is recommended 2 to 3 cups over the day. Adequate intake of liquid is essential for flushing out treatment. The herb should be protected from light and moisture and tightly sealed for storage.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Parsley is safe to use in culinary amounts, but avoid very high doses or extended use. Large amounts of volatile oil may irritate the stomach, intestines, or kidneys, and possibly cause headaches, loss of balance, convulsions, nerve damage, and other complications. Avoid parsley if you are allergic to other members of the same plant family, such as carrots or celery. Parsley fruit preparations are contraindicated in pregnancy, an abortive effect has been observed.

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