✵The article gives records of the herb Pineapple, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Ananas comosus L.Merr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Pineapple, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
English Name: Pineapple.
Latin Name: Ananas comosus L.Merr., sometimes referred to as Ananas sativus Schult.f.
Common Names: Ananas
Property and flavor: cool in nature, tastes sweet and sour.
Brief introduction: Pineapple is a large, distinctively shaped, succulent reddish-yellow fruit. The fruit, juice, leaves, and extracted enzymes called bromelains are used medicinally. Pineapple also contains at least three other proteolytic enzymes, but they have not been as thoroughly studied as the bromelains.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Pineapple as the fruit of the species (1).Ananas comosus L.Merr. It is a plant species of the Ananas genus, the Bromeliaceae family (bromeliad, pineapple family). The fruit and its enzyme bromelain are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:
(1).Ananas comosus L.Merr.
Botanical description: Ananas comosus has short stems. The leaves are numerous, arranged in rosettes, sword-shaped, 40~90 cm long, 4~7 cm wide, tapering at the top, entire-edge or with sharp teeth, the surface is green, the back surface is pink-green, margins and tops often with brownish red, the leaves at the top of the inflorescence become smaller and often red.
The inflorescences are drawn from the leaves, shaped like pine bulbs, 6~8 cm long, and enlarged when they bear fruit; the base of the bracts is green, the upper half is light red, triangular-ovate; the sepals are broadly ovate, fleshy, with reddish tips, about 1 cm long; the petals are oblong, pointed, about 2 cm long, the upper part is purple-red and the lower part is white.
Polyflora is fleshy, more than 15 cm long. Its flowering season is from summer to winter.
Ecological environment: Ananas comosus is native to the dry tropical mountains in Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay, but no real wild plant is found. It spread to Central and northern South America about 1600 AD. Because pineapple sprouts are more resistant to storage and transportation, they are quickly introduced to tropical and subtropical regions of the world in a short period. Between the end of the 16th century and the 17th century, it was introduced to various regions in southern China. It is cultivated in about 61 countries and regions in the world. In addition to China, it is more cultivated in Thailand, USA (the United States of America), Brazil, Mexico, the Philippines, and Malaysia.
Growth characteristics: Ananas comosus is native to the tropical high temperature and arid regions of South America. It prefers warmth. It grows best at an average annual temperature of 24-27 °C (Celsius, or 75.2~80.6 degrees Fahrenheit). It can grow in the range of 15-40 °C (Celsius, or 59~104 degrees Fahrenheit). It grows slowly below 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit) and stops growing below 10 °C (Celsius, or 50 degrees Fahrenheit). The critical temperature for cold damage is 5 °C (Celsius, or 41 degrees Fahrenheit). It has strong drought resistance, but still needs a certain amount of water for growth. It can grow in areas with an annual rainfall of 500~2,800 mm, and 1,000~1,500 mm and evenly distributed are the most suitable. Pineapples originally grow in semi-shade tropical rainforests. Shade-tolerant, due to the long-term artificial cultivation and domestication, the light requirements are increased. Under sufficient light, the fruit grows well, the fruit has high sugar content and good quality; if the light is insufficient, the growth is slow, and the fruit has high acid content and poor quality. Pineapple has wide adaptability to the soil, due to the shallow root system and good air, loose, well-drained, rich in organic matter, sandy loam or mountain red soil with a pH (pH scale:acidity-basicity) value of 5~5.5 is better, and the soil is lean, sticky, and poorly drained. And the high groundwater level is not conducive to the growth of pineapples.
Pharmacological actions: ①.diuretic; ②.broad actions of bromelain; ③.aiding digestion; ④.wound healing; ⑤.inhibit thrombocyte aggregation; ⑥.antineoplastic effect; ⑦.increase the serum level of antibiotics.
Pineapple juice has a diuretic action, it increases urine output, so it was used for bladder ailments, kidney stones, venereal diseases, and other related disorders.
Bromelain has been reported broad actions, reduce inflammation, relax smooth muscles, prevent ulcers, relieve sinus inflammation, enhance the absorption of antibiotics, inhibit appetite, shorten labor, treat urinary tract infections, reduce pain, break up blood clots, inhibit blood platelet aggregation and decrease the risk of clotting. But today bromelain is mainly sold as a dietary supplement in health food for inflammation and swelling, and to remove dead skin tissue associated with burns.
Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme, it is aiding digestion, it also promotes the healing of wounds, it also shows inhibition of thrombocyte aggregation, has an antineoplastic effect, and increases the serum level of antibiotics.
Medicinal efficacy: Pineapple fruit has long been used as a folk remedy for settling gas, soothing other digestive upsets, relieving constipation, controlling nervous exhaustion, and destroying intestinal worms. Its juice is used as a digestive tonic and diuretic. The sour and unripe fruit improves the appetite, encourages good digestion, and relieves indigestion. Leaves are used to stimulate menstrual periods and ease painful menstruation. Its component enzymes bromelain is used as a meat tenderizer, to break down food more completely, to remove dead tissue from skin burns, to treat inflammation and edema caused by surgery, trauma, allergies, arthritis, and infections, to relieve diarrhea due to digestive enzyme deficiency. It is also used for respiratory tract infections, painful menses, vein inflammation and varicose veins, wound-healing, pain and swelling, ulcer prevention, and adjunct to cancer therapy. Bromelain is used in cosmetics such as facial cleansers and bath preparations and food as an agent to chill-proof beer and modifies dough. It is used as a substitute for the costly proteolytic enzyme papain. Bromelain is extracted from the fruit or stem. In Europe, the herb is approved for wounds and burns.
Administration of Pineapple (Ananas comosus):
Administration Guide of Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
Herbal classic books:
Dosage: Bromelain is taken three times a day in doses of 250 to 500 mg. As a digestive aid, it is taken after meals; otherwise, it is taken on an empty stomach.
Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Ripe pineapple is safe in moderate doses, but stay away from the unripe fruit, as the unripe fruit is poisonous and can cause violent vomiting. Pregnant women should only take moderate amounts, as large doses of the ripe fruit juice have reportedly caused uterine contractions. Large amounts of the fruit cause mouth sores and a breakdown of the lip tissue. Bromelain might lead to negative effects nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, and excessive menstrual flow, it can cause allergic reactions in individuals who are sensitized to it. And repeated exposure to the bromelain destroys pineapple cutters' fingerprints.