Introduction of Propolis:Bee glue or propolis resin.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Propolis, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its insect source, ①.Apis cerana Fabr., with a detailed introduction to the features of this insect species, the habits, and ecological environment of this insect species, the features of the herb Propolis, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Propolis(Bee glue).

Propolis English Name: Propolis.
 Latin Name: Colla Apis.
 Common Names: Bee glue, bee rue, hive dross, propolis balsam, propolis resin, propolis wax.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes bitter, pungent, slightly sweet.

 Brief introduction: Propolis is a reddish-brown, resinous substance produced by honeybees from the buds of popular and conifer trees. It is an extremely complicated mixture of natural substances. The bees use it inside their hives as a form of glue. Propolis is a resin collected by bees from plant spores or tree trunks, mixed with the secretions of the upper palate glands and wax glands, and processed into a colloidal solid with an aromatic smell. It is a yellowish-brown or dark-brown viscous substance secreted by honeybee species such as Chinese honeybee to repair the hive and can be used as medicine.

 Source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Propolis as the colloidal solid substance of the species (1).Apis cerana Fabr., etc. They are small insects of the Apis genus, the Apidae family (bee family) of the Hymenoptera order. This common origin species is introduced:

(1).Apis cerana Fabr.

 Apis cerana Fabr:Chinese Honey Bee Insect description: It is commonly known as Zhōng Huá Mì Fēng, or Chinese Honey Bee. The abdomen color of Apis cerana Fabr(Chinese Honey Bee) workers varies with different regions, some are yellow, some are dark; Kiss length averages 5 mm. Queen bee has two body colors: one type is that the abdomen has a distinct brown ring, the whole abdomen is dark brown; In the other, the ventral segment has no distinct yellowish brown ring and the entire abdomen is black. Drones are usually black. The southern bee species are generally smaller than those in the north, with the body length of worker bees ranging from 10~13 mm, male bees ranging from 11~13.5 mm, and queen bees ranging from 13~16 mm.

 Apis cerana Fabr:Chinese Honey Bee Habits: Apis cerana Fabr(Chinese Honey Bee) fly quickly and have a keen sense of smell. They leave the nest early and return to the nest late. They spend 2~3 hours more than Italian bees every day to collect honey. New spleen, spleen ability strong, like love chew old spleen, resistance to bee mites and America larva putrid disease is strong, but susceptible to bee larvae cystic disease, susceptible to wax moth, like the journey, in the lack of honey diseases or attack from enemy threat especially easy to abandon nest and moved, prone to natural swarming and stealing bees, no gum, ability to secrete royal jelly not strong, a small group of potential.

 Apis cerana Fabr:Chinese Honey Bee Bees are social insects that live in groups of one queen, numerous worker bees (all females), and a few drones. The three types are different in shape, physiological function and productive function. The queen bee specializes in reproduction and egg-laying; The male bee specialized department and the queen bee (female bee) production match, insemination, after mating good dies; The functions of worker bees include nesting, collecting feed, feeding larvae, queen bee, cleaning the nest and adjusting the nest temperature. In terms of cold resistance and heat resistance, dense bees show the power of cluster activities and take nectar and pollen of plants as the staple food.

 The Chinese honeybee originally refers to a subspecies of Oriental honeybee (Apis cerana Fabricius), but there may be more than one subspecies of Oriental honeybee are distributed in China. Given the undetermined subspecies classification of Oriental honeybee in China, Oriental honeybee in China is temporarily called Chinese Honey Bee. Chinese honeybee is a native characteristic species of China, which is very adapted to the natural environment in mountainous areas of China.

 Apis cerana Fabr:Chinese Honey Bee  Ecological environment: In China, the honeybee distributes in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities from the southeast coast to the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The distribution of Chinese bee is found in the northern line to the lesser Xingan mountains, in the northwest to wuwei of Gansu province, ledu of Qinghai province, and in the deep mountains in Xinjiang. Southwest line to the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung zangbo river motuo, telamu, south to Hainan province, east to Taiwan. The concentrated distribution area is in the southwest and the south of the Yangtze river. China has more than 2 million colonies in artificial breeding, accounting for about a third of the country's Honeybee population.

 Propolis:bee glue block Propolis and its nutrient values: Propolis is an effective substance used by bees to maintain the health of the entire colony. A colony of 50,000 to 60,000 bees can only produce 70~110 grams of propolis a year, so propolis is known as "purple gold". The production period of propolis is mostly summer and autumn. The glue source plants in China generally include most tree species in the birch family, willow family, pinaceae, cypress family and sumac family, as well as peach, plum, apricot, chestnut, rubber, eucalyptus and sunflower, etc.

 Propolis is an extremely rare natural resource, known as "purple gold", containing more than 300 kinds of nutrients in 20 categories. Propolis collected from beehives usually contains 55% resin and tree incense, about 30% beeswax, 10% aromatic volatile oil, and 5% pollen and inclusions. Since the 1970s, relevant experts have proved that propolis contains extremely complex components, including flavonoids, terpenoids, aromatic volatile oils, organic acids, flavanols, steroids, and various amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, vitamins, and inorganic salts, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, various trace elements, etc. Among the components of propolis, the most representative active substances are quercetin, terpenes, and phenethyl caffeate. Quercetin has the functions of dilating coronary blood vessels, lowering blood lipids, and resisting platelet aggregation. It has a synergistic effect with aspirin. It can inhibit the release of endothelin from endothelial cells in different states to reduce the tension of blood vessels and provide a basis for preventing thromboembolism. For many years, it has been mainly used as a capillary hemostatic agent and auxiliary antihypertensive agent.

 Propolis:propolis wax Characters of herbs: In the warm season, scrape the bee propolis when unpacking the bee colony every 10 days or so. After scraping, squeeze it into a ball, wrap it with wax paper, put it in a plastic paper bag, and store it in a cool place.

 Propolis is an opaque solid with a smooth or rough surface, a sand-like fracture surface, and a cut surface similar to that of marble. Yellow-brown, tan, gray-brown, gray-green, dark green, very few dark like black. It has a lovely, special aroma. The taste is slightly bitter, slightly spicy, sticky to the teeth when chewed, and can be softened by hand rubbing. When the temperature is lower than 15 °C (Celsius, or 59 degrees Fahrenheit), it becomes hard, brittle, and easy to crush; when the temperature is 36 °C (Celsius, or 96.8 degrees Fahrenheit), it turns soft, viscous, and plastic; when the temperature reaches 60~70 °C (Celsius, or 140~158 degrees Fahrenheit), it melts into a viscous fluid and separates the beeswax. The specific gravity varies with different plant species, generally between 1.112 and 1.136. Propolis is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in turpentine, partially soluble in ethanol, and easily soluble in ether and chloroform. Propolis dissolves in 95% ethanol, it is transparent maroon color and has granular precipitation. Pure propolis should not have other impurities.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral actions; ②.stimulate the immune system; ③.anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect; ④.anti-tumor; ⑤.antioxidant effect; ⑥.Promote cell regeneration; ⑦.beauty effect, etc.

 Propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties, propolis effectively fights certain types of bacteria and fungi, and it may help wounds heal and fight fungal and bacterial infections, in 1967, the research of Lindenfelser in USA (the United States of America) proved that propolis has an inhibitory effect on 25 kinds of bacteria, Chinese studies found propolis has a strong antibacterial effect on at least 10 species of ringworm fungus, other studies found propolis has an inhibitory effect on 16 kinds of bacteria, including Pneumonia bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, typhimurium, etc. It's action against herpes simplex virus type 1, the influenza virus, hepatitis B virus, avian herpes viruses, poliovirus, and other viruses. Propolis can not only be used alone to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, etc., but also can be combined with some antibiotics and penicillin to improve the antibacterial power of these antibiotics and prolong their antibacterial activity.

 The suitable air temperature and temperature in the hives or tree dens where the bees live did not lead to the growth and proliferation of microorganisms. Why? Research has confirmed that propolis plays an important role. Propolis can inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria and certain viruses, and has a broad-spectrum antibiotic effect. Propolis ethanol extract at 100 μg/mL concentration has inhibitory effects on 25 of 39 bacteria and 20 of 39 plant fungi, and it is the most sensitive to Gram-positive bacteria and acid-fast bacteria. 1%~10% of propolis alcohol or ether extract is effective against common human fungi, ringworm, floccophyton, rubrum, Microsporum rust, Microsporum gypsum, Microsporum lamelliformis, Ringworm, gypsum-like ringworm, trichophyton, and violet ringworm all have inhibitory effects. It has a good killing effect on cucumber mosaic virus, tobacco spot virus, tobacco necrosis virus, and influenza A virus. It can inhibit the reproduction of the herpes virus and significantly reduce the infection of the vaccinia virus; it has a killing effect on Trichomonas vaginalis; it has a neutralizing effect on the exotoxin of diphtheria bacillus, tetanus bacillus, and edema bacillus. At the same time, combined with some antibiotics, it can improve the antibacterial activity and prolong its effect.

 Propolis stimulates the immune system by elevating the body's natural resistance to infection.

 Propolis has anti-inflammatory activity, an animal study found it relieves certain types of chemically induced arthritis in rats, and its anti-inflammatory activity might be stronger than aspirin. Studies also found propolis has an analgesic effect.

 Studies found propolis intriguing antitumor properties and its actions are attributed to its component caffeic acid pheneythyl ester. Propolis is rich in anti-cancer substances. Studies have shown that after taking propolis, cancer patients can shrink cancer cells and reduce the side effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

 Propolis alcoholic extracts have slight antioxidant properties, it helps scavenge toxic by-products that may contribute to cancer cell formation, mice study with propolis feed live longer when exposed to high doses of radiation. Propolis is known as an antioxidant and free radical scavenger, which can effectively remove wastes such as excess reactive oxygen species and free radicals generated by bad living habits such as obesity, overwork, environmental pollution, smoking, and external factors.

 Promote cell regeneration: propolis can speed up tissue regeneration and wound healing.

 Beauty effect: Propolis can decompose pigments, smooth wrinkles, slow down aging, etc. It is a good product for women's beauty.

 Medicinal efficacy: Propolis was used as a dressing for leg ulcers and battle wounds, in throat lozenges, in soaps and cosmetics, and as a healing agent in Europe, it is used to fight bacteria, viruses, and protozoa involved in various infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, dermatitis, giardiasis, for treating herpes simplex virus type 1 or oral herpes, influenza virus, hepatitis B virus, and avian herpes viruses. It has anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, tissue-regenerative, fever-reducing, antioxidant activities and is used for treating common colds, duodenal ulcers, stomach problems, and various inflammatory processes including arthritis. It boosts immune-system stimulating property has great interest. The resin was used by dentists for a variety of oral and dental complications, including fungal infections or moniliasis, for encouraging postsurgical healing. It is also used in soaps and cosmetics, also is used as a varnish for high-quality violin.

 TCM works recorded propolis properties are soothing and regenerating, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic, it is indicated for stomach ulcers, oral ulcers, burns, skin cracking pain, radiation protection, cervical erosion, herpes zoster, lepra alphos, skin fissure and pains, heloma, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipemia, high blood viscosity, etc.

 Administration of Propolis (Bee glue): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Propolis (Bee glue)
Herbal classic books and TCM Books: Dosage: To use commercial propolis formulations, follow the instructions. TCM works recommend the herb propolis proper amount for external application, prepare it as tincture or ointment, and apply a coating. For internal use, prepare it as tablet or alcohol saps, 1~2 grams.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:The resin has caused dermatitis, according to reports from individuals who have used propolis-containing skin cosmetics and others who work with the substance. Allergic mouth reactions characterized by inflammation and ulceration were reported following the use of lozenges that contain the resin. However, side effects are likely to be minimal. Pregnant women should not use propolis.
 Very few people are allergic to propolis, and the allergy rate is about 0.3‰. The symptoms of allergy are different, usually local itching, burning pain, an eczema-like rash, etc., the symptoms disappear after stopping use. Some people have a certain incubation period for allergy to propolis, and some allergies appear about 5 to 7 days after use, and some even about 1 month. When allergies occur, stop eating.

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