Introduction of Red Bush:Red Bush tea or Rooibos tea.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Red Bush, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Aspalathus linearis(Burm.f.)R.Dahlgr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Red Bush, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Red Bush(Rooibos).

red bush tea English Name: Red Bush.
 Latin Name: Aspalathus linearis(Burm.f.)R.Dahlgr.Sometimes referred to as Borbonia pinifolia Marloth or Aspalathus contaminata(Thunb.)Druce.
 Common Names: Red Bush tea, Rooibos, Rooibos tea, Green Rooibos, rooibos(Afrikaans), Aspalathus(French), etc.
 Property and flavor: refreshing with specific tastes.

 Brief introduction: Red bush is a low-lying bush, it is native to the mountainous regions of South Africa. Its dried flowering twigs and leaves are made as tea, called red bush tea or Rooibos tea. The long and needlelike leaves turn red when bruised, endowing the brew with a distinctive red color.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Red Bush as the prepared twigs and leaves of the species (1).Aspalathus linearis(Burm.f.)R.Dahlgr. It is a plant species of the Aspalathus genus, the Fabaceae or Leguminosae family (Papilionaceae, legume family, pea family). The leaves and twigs are used as a tea or used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Aspalathus linearis(Burm.f.)R.Dahlgr.

 Aspalathus linearis:growing plants Botanical description: Aspalathus linearis is a shrub, the plant grows to half a meter to two meters tall, the leaves are bright green, simple, needle-shaped, and turn a rich reddish-brown color upon fermentation.

 The flowers are small, yellow, typically pea-shaped, and produced in spring and early summer. The fruit is a flat, obliquely falcate, glabrous, single-seeded pod. The flowering period of the plant is from July to August.

 Ecological environment: Aspalathus linearis is native to Western parts of the Western Cape Province of South Africa, mainly in the Citrusdal, Clanwilliam, and Nieuwoudtville regions. The plant is cultivated extensively in South Africa, the production area stretches from Darling and Piquetberg in the south to Gifberg and Nieuwoudtville in the north. It is said that Cederberg, especially the Clanwilliam town, is the core area of South Africa's rooibos tea industry.

 Aspalathus linearis:growing plants Growth characteristics: Aspalathus linearis grows on sandy hills and the sides of mountains. The plant grows well in well-drained, sandy but moisture-retaining, non-acidic soils. The plant can not grow in the shade.

 Characters of herbs: The leaves and twigs are harvested with sickless and tied into bundles, then it is chopped into 3 mm long segments, moistened, bruised, and left in heaps to ferment for several hours until a sweet smell develops. The "fermentation" is an oxidation process, during this process, the phenolic components in the tea are enzymatically oxidized. Then it is taken out thinly to dry in the sun. The unfermented type is called green rooibos, normally the red bush tea is the fermented type.

 red bush tea 02 Red Bush tea is consumed in “fermented” form. During this process, aspalathin rapidly declines in the flavones isoorientin and orientin. Aspalathin and its oxidation products may be further oxidized to form high-molecular-weight brown compounds via polymerization reactions, causing the reddish-brown color of Red Bush tea. Red Bush tea is gaining acclaim for its taste and vitamin, mineral, antidiabetic activity, and antioxidant content.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.prevent cardiovascular disease; ②.neuroprotective effects; ③.antioxidant effect; ④.aid cancer treatment; ⑤.relieve depression; ⑥.liver protection or hepatoprotective effect; ⑦.increase spatial memory; ⑧.protect skin. ⑨.antiviral Activity, ⑩.anti-HIV activity, etc.

 Prevent cardiovascular disease: Aspalathus linearis and its tea Rooibos has been identified to be a promising candidate which may impact cardiovascular disease.

 Neuroprotective effects and antioxidant effect: mice studies found that long-term "fermented" rooibos herbal tea intake support the neuroprotective impact of rooibos tea. The herb's flavonoids have a strong antioxidant effect and significantly reduce oxidative stress.

 Aid cancer treatment: red bush tea contain flavonoids that help scavenge damaging and cancer-causing free radicals, green Aspalathus linearis extract treatment suppresses the migration and invasion of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, the herb inhibits the proliferation of PCa cells, as more than 80% of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) cases have bone metastasis, with a 5-year survival rate of 25%. Normally the greater red bush tea concentration brings a better protective effect.

 Relieve depression: Aspalathus linearis and other herbs can effectively assist in the prevention and treatment of depression. Depression (affective disorder) now affects about 10% of the population, but in the next few years due to the development of civilization and the increasing pace of life, the probable number of people suffering from this disease can grow rapidly.

 Hepatoprotective effect: studies in rats found Rooibos tea made from Aspalathus linearis significantly decreased CCl4-induced elevated enzyme levels.

 Increase spatial memory: studies in rats found Rooibos tea resulted in improvement of long-term spatial memory.

 Protect skin from UVB damage: components of Aspalathus linearis may protect skin against UVB-induced damage. Skin cells suffer continuous damage from chronic exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) that may result in UV-induced oxidative stress and skin thinning.

 Antiviral Activity: alkaline extract of Aspalathus linearis has the strongest inhibition against influenza A virus and could also inhibit different types of influenza viruses, including Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A and B.

 Anti-HIV activity: The polysaccharide components from Aspalathus linearis were found to have a strong anti-HIV activity.

 Medicinal efficacy: Red bush tea is one of the most popular commercial teas in South Africa, red bush tea does not contain stimulants such as caffeine or significant amounts of other compounds that might cause unwanted reactions. Red bush tea is a refreshing drink, native folks in South Africa used it to settle the stomach. It is recommended by some herbalists to reduce allergies. As the tea contains some vitamin C and no caffeine, it is a good option for a refreshing drink without stimulation. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is an indigenous South African plant, it was traditionally used by the local population as a remedy against several ailments, including alleviation of infantile colic, allergies, asthma, and dermatological problems, etc.

 Administration of Red Bush (Rooibos): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Red Bush (Rooibos)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: An infusion is prepared by pouring a cup of boiling water over 1 to 4 teaspoons of dried leaves. The infusion is taken three times a day. It is commonly mixed with sugar and milk. Rooibos is prepared and consumed in the same way as ordinary tea.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: There are no significant adverse reactions to this plant or the tea made from it appeared in decades of use. Red bush tea did not affect the absorption of iron, as some experts had feared.

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