Introduction of Sage:Dalmation sage or Garden sage.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Sage, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Salvia officinalis L., ②.Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Sage, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Sage(Dalmation sage).

Dalmation sage English Name: Sage.
 Latin Name: Dalmation sage:Salvia officinalis L. Spanish sage:Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl.
 Common Names: Garden sage, meadow sage, red sage, scarlet sage, true sage.
 Property and flavor: the leaves are aromatic, tangy, and bitterly astringent.

 Brief introduction: Sage is a small, shrubby evergreen perennial plant, it is cultivated around the world, Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl are the most commercially important. The grayish-green leaves are used medicinally, the volatile oil is produced through steam distillation.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Sage as the grayish-green leaves of the species (1).Salvia officinalis L., (2).Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl. They are plant species of the Salvia genus, the Lamiaceae family (Labiatae, mint family). The leaves are used medicinally. These two commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Salvia officinalis L.

 Salvia officinalis:flowering plants Botanical description: Salvia officinalis is a perennial herb, the plant grows as a bush up to about 60 cm high; roots are woody; stems are upright, the base is woody, quadrangular, white short tomentose, and many branches; leaves are simple, oblong or elliptic or oval, 1~8 cm long, 0.6~3.5 cm wide, the apex is sharp or cuspid, rare to sharp, base is rounded or sub truncate, margin with scallops, firm papery, both surfaces are finely wrinkled, covered with white short hairs; petiole is 3 cm long to nearly sessile, ventral concave dorsally convex, densely covered with short white hairs;

 Salvia officinalis:flowering plants Whorl umbels have 2~18 flowers, forming a raceme with apical growth of 4~18 cm; the lowermost bracts are leaflike, the upper ones are broadly oval, the apex is tapering, the base is rounded, sessile, longer than the calyx, covered with sparsely short tomentose or short ciliate; pedicel is about 3 mm, densely covered with white short hairs on rachis; the calyx is bell-shaped, 1~1.1 cm long when flowering, enlarged when fruiting, up to 1.5 cm long, outside on veins and the edge is covered with short hairs, the rest is covered with golden yellow glands, more or less purple, the inner surface is covered with slightly hirsute hairs, two lips, several lobed to the middle, the upper lip is shallowly lobed into 3 teeth, the teeth are cone-pointed, the middle teeth are smaller, lower lip half-cleft into 2 teeth, triangular teeth, the apex is tapering;

 Nutlets are nearly spherical, about 2.5 mm in diameter, dark brown, and smooth;

 Salvia officinalis:flowers Ecological environment: Salvia officinalis is native to Europe, the plant is native to the Mediterranean region and has naturalized in all of Europe. It is cultivated in North America and other regions.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers warm and humid climate, sunny and not shaded. It can grow in areas which altitude is below 1,000 meters above sea level. Better choose where sufficient sunshine, deep soil layer, loose fertile sandy soil for cultivation.

(2).Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl.

 Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl:Spanish sage Botanical description: Salvia lavandulifolia is also known as Salvia lavandulaefolia, the plant is an evergreen compact subshrub or woody-based perennial, growing to 30~60 cm high and wide, with narrow, grey-green, downy leaves and, in summer, spike-like racemes of violet-blue flowers.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows mainly in Iberian Peninsula.

 Growth characteristics: Salvia lavandulifolia requires light, well-drained soil in a sunny position. Soils rich in nitrogen encourage excessive leaf growth at the expense of flowering.

 Dalmation sage Characters of herbs: The fresh leaves and the fresh flowering aerial parts, the dried leaves, and the oils extracted from the flowers and stems are used medicinally.

 The aromatic leaves of Salvia lavandulifolia are used as an adulterant for the common sage. They are used as a substitute for sage in commercial food flavorings. A sage-like tea is made from dried leaves.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.astringent; ②.antimicrobial; ③.reducing sweating; ④.mild estrogen-like effects; ⑤.mild blood-pressure lowering effects; ⑥.digestive effect; ⑦.antioxidant activity, etc.

 Sage volatile oil and tannins function as astringent and increase blood flow to the area.

 Sage phenolic acids fight certain bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, its gargles are used in mouth and throat remedies.

 Sage reduces sweating and was used to treat excessive sweating, and reduce perspiration.

 Sage has a mild blood-pressure-lowering effect, and mild estrogen-like effects.

 Sage volatile oil helps alleviate excess gas and relax the smooth muscle lining of the digestive tract.

 Sage extracts exert strong antioxidant activity, antioxidants control the formation of dangerous substances in the body known as free radicals, free radicals damage cells through oxidation, some of which may contribute to cancer-cell formation. Antioxidants also help prevent meat spoilage, explaining sage's traditional use as a preservative.

 Medicinal efficacy: Sage is a kitchen herb, in food, it is used in perfumes, deodorants, and insecticides. In ancient times, sage was used by early Greeks to preserve meat. Traditionally sage was used for excessive perspiration and salivation, stomach cramps and gas, as a natural antiperspirant to reduce sweating at night, it was used to induce and increase the menstrual flow, and to alleviate menstrual pains, nervous conditions, depression, diarrhea, rheumatic pains, sprains, insect bites. Sage tea is recommended as a mouthwash to calm mouth or throat inflammations including sore throat, bleeding gums, canker sores, dry cough, and swallowing problems. Sage is also used as toothpaste and toothache balm, used in moisturizers for its soothing and healing effects, etc. In Europe, sage is approved for loss of appetite, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, and excessive perspiration.

 Administration of Sage (Dalmation sage): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Sage (Dalmation sage)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: An infusion of sage is prepared using about 2 teaspoons or 5 grams of finely cut herb per cup of water, as a mouthwash or gargle.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The volatile oil in sage contains relatively high concentrations of the toxic chemical thujone, it dissipates with heat so does not pose a risk if you are cooking with the leaves, herb-scented cooking oil is safe as well. But do not ingest purified sage oil, it is toxic. Large doses can lead to convulsions and coma, long time taking the thujone in sage oil can cause numerous complications including physical and mental deterioration. Most sage preparations contain very small amounts of the oil and are therefore unlikely to cause an adverse reaction, using sage tea as a mouthwash or gargle does not pose these hazards and is considered harmless, always spit the material out. Pregnant women should avoid using sage in any form.

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