Introduction of St.John's Wort:Klamath weed or Tipton Weed.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb St.John's Wort, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Hypericum perforatum L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb St.John's Wort, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

St.John's Wort.(klamath weed).

St.Johns Wort English Name: St.John's Wort.
 Latin Name: Hypericum perforatum L.
 Common Names: Amber touch-and-heal, goatweed, John's wort, Hardhay, Klamath weed, Saint John's Wort, St.Johnswort, Tipton Weed, rosin rose.
 Property and flavor: The flower release an odorless red juice when squeezed, which tastes weakly bitter and irritating.

 Brief introduction: Hypericum perforatum is a shrubby perennial, indigenous to Europe and an aggressive weed in western North America and Australia, it has striking, bright yellow star-shaped flowers. The fresh or dried flowering tops are used medicinally.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb St. John's Wort as the dried flowering tops of the species (1).Hypericum perforatum L. It is a plant species of the Hypericum genus, the Hypericaceae family (Hypericaceae Juss, st.john’s-wort family). The dried flowering tops are used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Hypericum perforatum L.

 Hypericum perforatum:flowering plant Botanical description: Hypericum perforatum is a plant species of the Hypericum genus, the Hypericaceae family, it has several synonyms, Hypericum perforatum var. microphyllum, Hypericum perforatum var. confertiflora, Hypericum perforatum var. confertiflorum, etc.

 Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, it grows up to 30~60 cm high, and has long-living branches roots, and rhizomess, that tapers toward each end. The reddish stem is upright, has 2 raised edges, and can reach 100 cm in height. Leaves are oval-shaped, translucent, punctate, attached directly at the base and often covered in black glands, 1~2 cm long, 3~7 mm wide, the apex is obtuse, the base is subcordate, holding stem, sessile, 2 pairs of lateral veins;

 Hypericum perforatum:leaves Dichotomy cymes, with 5~7 flowers, forming terminal panicles; sepals are oblong or lanceolate, the apex is sharp or tapering, margin with black gland points; petals are golden yellow, oblong or oblong-ellipse shape, about 1.2 cm long, with black glandular dots on the upper part and margin, persistent; stamens 5 bundles, each bundle with about 15 stamens; styles 3, slightly open from the base; capsular fruit is triangular and oval, 3-valvular, about 5 mm long, with dorsal gland strips and lateral yellow-brown cystic glands; The seeds are cylindrical and shortly pointed at both ends, 1~3 mm long, either black or dark brown, and covered in small warts. The plant flowering from July to August, and fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: Hypericum perforatum grows on hillsides, roadsides, grasslands, forests, and riversides, in the area with altitudes 500~2,100 meters above sea level, the plant grows in Southern Europe, Cyprus, Near East, Western to Central Asia, and North Asia, in China, the plant grows in the northwest and north, southwest, the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The plant has been introduced to eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

 Hypericum perforatum:flowering plant Growth characteristics: Hypericum perforatum does not have strict soil requirements, prefers warm climates, and prefers moist and fertile sandy soil or sandy soil.

 History and story of St. John's Wort: St. John's worts was named possibly by early Christians in honor of John the Baptist (St. John the Baptist), through the Middle Ages (the period in European history from the collapse of Roman civilization in the 5th century CE to the period of the Renaissance), it was believed to possess magical powers and a capacity to repel evil spirits.

 Hypericum perforatum:flowering plant Characters of herbs: St. John's wort is the dried above-ground parts of Hypericum perforatum gathered during the flowering season, the fresh buds and flowers separated from the inflorescence, the aerial parts collected during the flowering season and dried, and the entire fresh flowering plant. The herb is cut at the start of the flowering season and dried quickly in bunches in order to preserve the oil and secreted contents.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.relieve depression and antianxiety effect, neuroendocrine effect; ②.MAO inhibition; ③.antimicrobial and wound-healing effect; ④.inhibit HIV; ⑤.anti-inflammatory effect; ⑥.anticancer effect, etc.

 St. John's wort preparations can help relieve mild to moderate depression or temporary depressive moods, so it is used for mild depressive states, anxiety, or nervous unrest. For mild antidepressant action or nervous disturbances, 2~4 grams of the herb is used. Studies result showed that St. John's wort has significant relief to feelings of sadness, hopelessness, uselessness, fear, disturbed sleep, and other symptoms of depression. And the herb has fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants.

 Neuroendocrine effect: St.John's wort extert neuroendocrine effect and identified it is from the influence of certain neurotransmitters in the central nervous system by its component hyperforin.

 MAO inhibition: studies found St.John's wort component hypericin exerts an inhibition action on the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), enabling the level of various nerve-impulse transmitters critical to mood and emotional stability in the brain to increase.

 Antimicrobial and wound-healing effect: St.John's wort contains components that against common infection-causing agents such as Staphylococcus aureus, hypericin and pseudohypericin fight certain viruses, its butanol fraction inhibits Helicobacter pylori. Studies in rats found St.John's wort is more effective for wound healing than a topical tincture of calendula.

 Inhibit HIV: Studies found hypericin fights retro-viruses such as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, transmissible disease of the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus) . The herb contains astringent tannins, which help constrict tissue and dry up oozing of secretions, the herb is used for first-degree burns, injuries, muscle pain, skin abrasions and inflammations, for dyspeptic complaints.

 Anti-inflammatory effect: St.John's wort component has anti-inflammatory activity.

 Anticancer effect: study found hypericin inhibits leukemia cells and gastrointestinal tumor cells, and hypericin has direct inhibitory effects on tumor cells.

 Medicinal efficacy: St. John's Wort was used traditionally to treat anxiety, depression, insomnia, diarrhea, stomach irritation, fluid retention, bladder ailments, kidney and lung disorders, and even cancer. The tincture made of chopped flowers steeped in oil was used to relieve infection and inflammation, for wounds, bruises, sores, and other skin disorders. Today the herb is recommended by herbalists for promoting healing in wounds and hemorrhoids, internally it is used as an antidepressant, a sedative for anxiety and nervous disturbances, a tranquilizer, a remedy for menstrual cramps, an expectorant for colds and chest congestion, for viral infections, including HIV. In Europe, the herb is approved for anxiety, depressive moods, inflammation of the skin, blunt injuries, wounds, and burns.

 Administration of St.John's Wort.(klamath weed): 
Reference: Administration Guide of St.John's Wort.(klamath weed)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: The herb is taken in doses of 2~4 grams daily, normally this dose contains 0.2~1.0 mg hypericin. 300 mg size capsules made of its extracts which contain about 0.3 percent hypericin are typically recommended taken three times a day. An infusion is prepared by pouring 1 cup of boiling water over 1 to 2 heaping teaspoons of flowers, about 2~4 grams, steep for 10 minutes, then straining the liquid. The infusion is drunk once or twice a day over the course of four to six weeks. For depressive mood, the herb is recommended for the duration of 4 to 6 weeks, if no improvement is apparent, a different therapy should be initiated. The herb should be stored at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: St.John's wort has no serious adverse reactions, but it poses a risk of sun-sensitivity reactions photosensitivity in light-skinned livestock. In any case, you should avoid direct sunlight after ingesting the herb in any form, especially if you are light-skinned or have had sun-sensitivity reactions before. Reported side effects have included restlessness, mild allergic reactions, and gastrointestinal upset.

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