Introduction of Shiitake Mushroom:Lentinula edodes or Black forest mushroom.
✵The article gives records of the herb Shiitake Mushroom, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing., ②.Flower Shiitake Mushrooms, with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two fungus species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two fungus species, the features of the herb Shiitake Mushroom, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
Shiitake Mushroom(Lentinula edodes).
English Name: Shiitake Mushroom.
Latin Name: Lentinula edodes(Berk.)Pegler, sometimes referred to as Tricholomopsis edodes Sing., or Armillaria mellea.
Common Names: Black forest mushroom, hua gu, pasania fungus, snake butter, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus shiitake, Cortinelus edodes, Armillaria edodes, Shii-ta-ke, Lentinus edodes, Filamentous Fungi.
Property and flavor: neutral in nature, tastes sweet.
Brief introduction: Shiitake mushroom is a flavorful brown fungus, it has a flat brown cap that develops cracks as it dries. Both the cap and the stem are used medicinally, as is lentinan, a complex polysaccharide first isolated from the mushroom in the 1970s.
Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Shiitake Mushroom or the Lentinus edodes(Xiang Gu) as the dried fruiting body (cap and stem) of the species (1).Lentinula edodes(Berk.)Pegler. It is a fungus species of the Lentinula genus, the Agaricaceae family(Marasmiaceae). The dried cap and stem are used medicinally. This commonly used species and its selective species Flower Shiitake are introduced:
(1).Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing.
Botanical description: The Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing., is a fungus of the Agaricaceae family and Lentinula genus, the latest classification system classified it into the Marasmiaceae family or the Pleurotace family, fruiting body small to slightly larger, 5~12 cm diameter cap, up to 20 cm, flat spherical to slightly flat, surface Lingsha, light brown, dark brown to dark cinnamon color, dark scales, and the edges are often light scales to dirty white, with hairy or flocculent, fungus white, slightly thick or thick, fine, white folds, dense, curved students, unequal length. The stipe grows partial, white, often curved, 3~8 cm long, 0.5~1.5 cm thick, cilia-like scales below the sclerotia ring, internal, fiber, bacteria ring easily disappeared, white.
The Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing., fruiting cap half-fleshed, 5~12 cm wide, flattened hemispherical, flattened later, rhombus to deep cinnamon, with light-colored scales. Thick flesh, white, delicious. Pleated white, dense, curved students. The stem grows partial, white, internal, often curved, long 3~5 or 9 cm, thick 5~9 mm, the following part of the ring is often covered with scales, the ring is narrow and easy to disappear. Spores are colorless, smooth, oval, (4.5~5) μm × (2~2.5) μm. Grows on hardwood tree fallen wood. Artificial cultivated in spring and winter.
Ecological environment: The Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing., grows in the mountain and forest, valley, on hardwood and tree fallen wood. The Lentinus edodes are mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river, southeast, southwest, etc. It grows in the wild field and is also cultivated.
Growth characteristics: The Shiitake mushroom is the second-largest edible mushroom in the world, and it is also one of China's specialty products. It is known as “mountain treasure” in folk. It is a fungus that grows on wood. Furthermore, it has a delicious taste, aroma, and nutrition and is known as the "Queen of plants". The Shiitake Mushrooms are rich in the vitamin B group, iron, potassium, vitamin D (converted into vitamin D after sun exposure), sweet, and flat. Indications for loss of appetite, lack of energy, and fatigue. China is the biggest exporter of shiitake mushrooms, the annual output of shiitake mushrooms is 80,000 tons and accounts for more than 80% of the world's 100,000 tons, ranking first in the world and exporting 36,000 tons.
(2).Flower Shiitake Mushrooms.
Botanical description: The Flower Shiitake Mushrooms is a fungus of the Agaricaceae family and Lentinula genus, the latest classification system classified it into the Marasmiaceae family or the Pleurotace family, the flower shiitake are treasures of the shiitake mushrooms and are produced by the stimulation of certain specific environmental conditions, the natural incidence rate is 4% to 5%, it is a selective species. In modern times it has been developed with environmental control of the natural conditions of temperature, humidity, light, and ventilation during the production process of the Lentinus edodes. Artificially changes the normal growth and development of the mushroom and makes the mushroom cover form white and brown patterns, thus known as Flower Shiitake.
The Flower Shiitake Mushroom is a star in the mushrooms and is an excellent mushroom produced by the fruit body of the Lentinus edodes(Berk.) Sing. in a special environment. The top surface of the mushroom shows light black, the mushroom pattern is bursting with bloom, and white, and the bottom of the mushroom is pale yellow. The mushroom is named for its top surface. The colder the weather, the higher the output of the mushroom and the better the quality. The flesh (fungus context) is thick, tender, and delicious, and the food is refreshing.
The Flower Shiitake Mushrooms are rich in protein and amino acids, fats, crude fiber, and vitamins 1, B2, C, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and so on. It's protein composed of albumin, gluten, prolamin, amino acids, and so on. The Flower Shiitake not only has a unique flavor of fragrance, but also contains rich ingredients beneficial to the human body. The Flower Shiitakes are rich in vitamin B, iron, potassium, vitamin D (converted into vitamin D after sun exposure), and other nutrients.
The Flower Shiitake Mushrooms are rich in protein and amino acids, fats, crude fiber, and vitamins 1, B2, C, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and so on. Its protein is albumin, gluten, prolamin, amino acids, and so on. According to analysis, the mushroom contains crude protein 23.2%~24.3%, crude fat 2.92%~3.37%, water-soluble 50~74 mg/ml, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, iron and other minerals, and a variety of vitamins. The amino acid content is very high. It contains 17 kinds of amino acids required by the human body and rich lentinan polysaccharides. The vitamin D content reaches 120 international units and contains many purine bases.
Among the 8 kinds of amino acids the human body needs, there are 7 kinds of them, the total amount of essential amino acids is 3.58%, and the total amount of amino acids is 9.45%. Its content is higher than that of the common shiitake mushrooms. It also contains more than 30 kinds of enzymes and contains vitamin D. The source (Meltylenol) is absent from vegetables and is 21 times that of soybean. Because the mushroom cap and the overall growth rate is slower than ordinary shiitake mushrooms, it is crisper and more delicious than ordinary shiitake meat, nutritious cooking ingredients, and healthy foods. According to chemical analysis, its water content is one-half that of ordinary shiitake mushrooms, its amino acid content is 3-4 times higher, its taste is excellent, and its taste is delicious, it is a good material for cooking, and it is also a cure for diseases. It is used by our people as a supplement for longevity.
Ecological environment: The Flower Shiitake Mushrooms, grows in the sunny grass and wild sunny hillside. This species is mainly distributed in China provinces Jingshan County in Hubei Province, Tongbai Mountain Region in the northeast of Suizhou City and Sanligang Township in Hubei Province, Qingyuan County and Songyang County in Zhejiang Province, Biyang County and Xixia County in Henan Province.
Shiitake Mushroom and Tradition: As a symbol of longevity in Asia because of their health-promoting properties, shiitake mushrooms have been used medicinally by the Chinese for more than 6,000 years. More recently, their rich, smoky flavor has endeared them to American taste buds and these exotic hearty mushrooms can now be found on supermarket shelves across USA (the United States of America) throughout the year.
Like other mushrooms, these specialty mushrooms are as mysteriously unique as they are delicious. While often thought of as a vegetable and prepared like one, mushrooms are actually a fungus, a special type of living organism that has no roots, leaves, flowers, or seeds.
Ancient healers prescribed them for many ailments such as fatigue, liver ailments, vision problems, sinus conditions, colds, and gastrointestinal ailments. Shiitake was also prescribed as a general prophylactic to promote longevity, vitality, and well-being.
Modern medicine is just beginning to discover. Compounds in shiitake mushrooms, especially a phytochemical called lentinan, have been subjected to various clinical studies, and are thought to have possible benefits for many disorders, including cancer, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hepatitis, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), herpes, and other viral conditions.
In addition to the phytochemicals that seem to bring health benefits, these delightful fungi are also hosting a significant number of macro- and micronutrients. They have high levels of amino acids, including glutamic acid, a nonessential amino acid considered to be "brain food" due to its ability to stimulate neurotransmitter activity, as well as its ability to transport potassium to the brain, protein, enzymes, dietary enzymes, are vital for proper absorption of nutrients and digestion of food, dietary fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including ergosterol, which can be converted by sunlight into vitamin D.
Last, but not least, shiitake are delicious. Luckily for both the medical and culinary worlds, shiitake are now among the most-cultivated edible mushrooms in the world.
How to Cook Shiitake Mushroom: The shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) has been prized by people in China and East Asia for at least 2,000 years, valued not only for its culinary contributions, but the shiitake is also consumed for its medicinal properties. One of the world's most cultivated edible mushrooms, shiitakes are a good source of nutrients, and they contain eight essential amino acids as well as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and dietary fiber and enzymes. Shiitake mushrooms also contain ergosterol, which can be converted by sunlight into vitamin D.
Ancient Chinese physicians knew the power of this dark, meaty, capped woodland mushroom, and they prescribed it as an important food to activate Qi, which is roughly translated as "life force." Shiitake was also promoted by ancient healers as food that promotes longevity, protects the immune system, and is a preventative against gastrointestinal distress, liver disease, colds, flu, and circulatory problems. Scientists today are discovering that the ancient healers of China indeed knew their medicine and that shiitake may be instrumental in helping to combat a host of serious ailments including heart disease, cancer, and life-threatening viral conditions.
Of interest to scientists is a substance extracted from shiitake known as lentinan. A polysaccharide, lentinan is currently under investigation for potential anti-tumor effects, blood pressure-lowering effects, and cholesterol-lowering effects. Lentinan is currently being studied for its ability to inhibit cancer, primarily by stimulating certain types of white blood cells important in immune function, rather than by directly attacking cancer cells. Shiitake extracts have been tested in recent years as an adjunct to chemotherapy, and a highly purified form of lentinan is currently used in China in conjunction with standard chemotherapy agents in the treatment of cancer.
Another compound in shiitake, lentinula edodes mycelium, may prove to be helpful in treating and preventing cancer, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, infectious disease, and hepatitis. Eritadenine, another substance in shiitake, may be responsible for helping to reduce blood levels of cholesterol and fats by promoting their excretion. If you are on blood-thinning anticoagulant medication, it is important to consult with your physician before consuming large amounts of shiitake, as these mushrooms may possess blood thinning properties.
Characters of herbs: Cap is half fleshy, flat hemispherical, or flat, 4~12 cm in diameter. The surface is brown or purple-brown, with light brown or brown scales, with irregular cracks. The context is white or light brown. Gills are white or light brown. The stipe is mesogenic or partial, nearly cylindrical or slightly flat, curved or straight, often with scales, the upper part is white, the lower part is white to brown, solid inside. The base of the handle is enlarged. The smell is slightly fragrant, light taste.
Pharmacological actions: ①.enhance immune system and immunomodulatory; ②.against bacterial infections and antiviral; ③.enhance AIDS treatment; ④.lower cholesterol level; ⑤.treatment of cancer and anti-tumor effect; ⑥.regulate immune system; ⑦.platelet aggregation; ⑧.antioxidant effects. ⑨.cosmetic effects, etc.
Shiitake mushroom enhances the effectiveness of the immune system in various ways, increasing the activity of such crucial infection-fighting cells as macrophages, T-helper cells, and other white blood cells. Studies found that L. edodes-derived polysaccharides are the valuable compounds, with anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory properties.
Shiitake mushroom component lentinan increases resistance to bacterial infections and protects against certain types of viral infections in mice, such as the virus that causes encephalitis, which is a potentially deadly inflammation of brain tissue. Studies found sulfated lentinan inhibits HIV human leukemia virus type I and T cells.
Test-tube studies suggest that shiitake may enhance the actions of a common AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) medicine, zidovudine, shiitake mushroom help treat the disease by increasing the activity of the immune system.
Lentinan and other shiitake mushroom compounds can significantly lower cholesterol levels.
Lentinan shows great promise as a cancer fighter, and positive results have been reported involving subjects with stomach cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. Lentinan can promote antibody formation, activation of macrophages, and lower methylcholanthrene-induced tumor incidence. Lentinan can activate macrophages and enhance its anti-tumor activity.
Platelet aggregation: mushrooms cordiofolia extract both in vivo inhibition of adenosine diphosphate platelet aggregation induced by monosodium salt.
Antioxidant effects: shiitake mushroom extract have a scavenging effect on hydrogen peroxide(H2O2).
Cosmetic effects: Lentinus edodes extract have antimicrobial and antibacterial properties, although it could be a potential skin irritant.
Medicinal efficacy: Shiitake mushroom has been cultivated in Asia for thousands of years as a food and medicine, along with the Reishi Mushroom, it now qualifies as one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms in America, its component lentinan is said to enhance the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. It has antiviral, antimicrobial, and tumor-fighting properties, for lowering cholesterol. It was used by Asian herbalists as a vitalizing tonic, blood-pressure reducer, and cholesterol control agent, for anemia and diabetes treatment, to prevent and treat cancer, improving the outcome of cancer-related surgery of the breast and gastrointestinal tract.
Administration of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes):
Administration Guide of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes)
Dosage: One to three 600 mg capsules are taken three times a day. The traditional intake of the whole, dried shiitake mushroom is 6~16 grams per day. The mushroom is typically eaten in soups or taken as a decoction (i.e., boiled for 10~20 minutes, cooled, strained, and drunk). The recommended intake of LEM is 1~3 grams two to three times per day. Purified lentinan is a herbal supplement in North America.
Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Studies indicate that both the mushroom and lentinan are very safe to take, causing few if any toxic reactions in mice and other animals, few adverse reactions have been reported by people taking lentinan in clinical trials, allergic reactions are possible, however.
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1.Introduction of Shiitake Mushroom:Lentinula edodes or Black forest mushroom.