Introduction of Yarrow:knight's milfoil or sanguinary.

Popular Herbs. ✵The article gives records of the herb Yarrow, its English name, Latin name, common names, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Achillea millefolium L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Yarrow, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Yarrow(Achillea).

pink flower spikes of Yarrow English Name: Yarrow.
 Latin Name: Achillea millefolium L.
 Common Names: Achillea, bad man's plaything, bloodwort, Carpenter's Weed, Devil's Plaything, Devil's Nettle, herbe militaire, Knight's Milfoil, milfoil, nosebleed, Noble Yarrow, Old Man's Pepper, Sanguinary, soldier's herb, soldier's woundwort, thousand weed, Thousand Seal.
 Property and flavor: The herb has a mild aromatic odor and slightly bitter taste.

 Brief introduction: Yarrow has been applied to many barely distinguishable species and subspecies of plants. The profusion of narrow, divided leaves that emerge off the stem lends it a feathery or even lacy appearance. In summer, dense clusters of small white, pink, or yellow flowers appear on umbrella-like stalks. The entire above ground plant, from the stems to the leaves and flower tops, is used medicinally.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Yarrow as the entire aboveground plant of the species (1).Achillea millefolium L. It is a plant species of the Achillea genus, the Asteraceae family (composite family). The above-ground plant is used medicinally. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Achillea millefolium L.


 pink flowers of Achillea millefolium Botanical description: Achillea millefolium is a perennial herb, stems are often covered with white villous hairs; leaves are sessile, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate or sublinear, 5~7 cm long, bipinnatifid, 1.5~2 mm wide, many lobes, small lobes are lanceolate or linear, 0.5~1.5 mm long, apex with cartilaginous mucrocus, densely concave glands above, slightly piliferous, and densely appressed villous on the undersurface; lower leaves are 10~20 cm long;

 Inflorescences are numerous, densely formed into compound corymbs; involucral bracts are oblong or nearly oval, about 3 mm wide, sparsely pubescent, involucral bracts are 3-layered, imbricate, elliptic, 1~1.3 mm, the margin is membranous, brown or pale yellow, scattered yellow glandular dots on the back, pubescent on the upper part; ligulate flowers 5, the tongue is orbicular(subrotund), white, pink, or lavender, 2~2.5 mm wide, apex has 2~3 teeth; disc flower is tubular, yellow, the crown is 5-lobed, glandular point; achenes are oblong, light green; its flowering and fruiting period is from July to September.

 pink flower spikes of Achillea millefolium Ecological environment: The plant grows in forest beaks, roadsides, houses, and sunny grasslands on hillsides. The plant is widely distributed in Europe, northern Africa, west Asia, Siberia, and North China.

 Growth characteristics: Propagation: Available by seeding or division. Autumn, winter, and early spring are all suitable for sowing. The suitable temperature for seed germination is 15~20 °C (Celsius, or 59~68 degrees Fahrenheit). After sowing, about 7~10 large germination occur, and the plant height is about 7~10 cm before transplanting and cultivation. Division can be implemented throughout the year, but autumn to early spring is better. If there are many branches and leaves on the upper part of the stem, they should be cut off and 3~5 cm should be reserved. Planting should be done immediately after division.

 flowering plant of Achillea millefolium with pale white,green and pink flower spikes Cultivation: The key cultivation soil is fertile loam or sandy loam, with good drainage and sufficient sunshine. After the seedlings were colonized and survived, they were topped once to promote multiple lateral branches. Topdressing once every 1~2 months, all kinds of organic fertilizers or nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are good; if cut flowers are cultivated, after the flower buds are differentiated, nitrogen and potassium fertilizers should be increased proportionally to promote the pedicle to be strong and thick, and the water absorption is good. During the growth period, it is intolerant to drought, the cultivation soil should be kept moist. After each flowering period, perform strong pruning once, and then fully replenish water and fertilizer, and new branches can germinate and bloom. The plant prefers warm, avoid high temperature and humidity, the suitable temperature for growth is 15~25 °C (Celsius, or 59~77 degrees Fahrenheit), and it should be cool and ventilated in summer.

 Subspecies: Subspecies are: Achillea millefolium subsp. alpestris, Achillea millefolium subsp. ceretanica, Achillea millefolium subsp. chitralensis, Achillea millefolium subsp. collina, Achillea millefolium subsp. elbursensis.

 pink and light green flower spikes of Achillea millefolium Characters of herbs: Yarrow herb is the fresh or dried, above-ground parts of Achillea millefolium, harvested during the flowering season. Yarrow flower consists of the dried inflorescence of Achillea millefolium.

 flowering plants of Achillea millefolium with pink,white,light green flower spikes Pharmacological actions: ①.wound-healing; ②.anti-inflammatory properties; ③.bitter and aid appetite; ④.antispasmodic properties; ⑤.induce sweating; ⑥.sedative; ⑦.slight diuretic action; ⑧.antimicrobial effects. ⑨.cardiovascular effects,etc.

 Yarrow was used to treating wound, and studies found various useful wound-healing substances in yarrow, including antiseptic( tannins, terpeniol, cineol ) active against a wide range of common disease-causing bacteria, pain relievers such as camphor and eugenol, and substances that help stop bleeding(achilletin, achilleine).

 Yarrow volatile oil boosts anti-inflammatory properties, it reduced inflammation in rat-paw tests, studies attribute it to its component salicylate-like derivatives, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol.

 Yarrow contains bitter-tasting substances and encourages the appetite and eases digestion by increasing salivation and stimulating gastric juice.

 Yarrow has antispasmodic properties and helps resolve painful cramp-like conditions in the pelvic area, such as back pain and painful menstruation.

 Yarrow helps induce sweating, it was ever used for reducing fever.

 Yarrow has a sedative effect.

 Yarrow has a slight diuretic action, and increased urination, it was identified in mice fed high doses of a liquid extract.

 Yarrow extracts exhibit bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, as well as Candida albicans, its component terpinen-4-ol has bacteriostatic activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhosa, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, and Calbicans.

 Yarrow extract lowered blood pressure in hypertensive subjects and decreased LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins cholesterol) and triglycerides, while raising HDL (high-density lipoprotein) in hyperlipidemic subjects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Yarrow is used as a wound healer, the herb was reportedly enlisted as a wound treatment during the Trojan wars, later Romans wounded in battle reportedly rubbed the herb into injured tissue. Folk healers in medieval Europe used it to stop bleeding. Native Americans collected yarrow to treat burns and wounds. Yarrow is recommended by contemporary herbalists externally for relieving inflammation and preventing infection in wounds, ulcers, inflamed joints, rashes, and mucous membrane inflammations. It is used in moisturizers for its soothing and healing actions. The herb has a similarly long history of internal use to treat digestive system upset including diarrhea, cramps, and gallbladder ailments, to stimulate sagging appetite, lower fever by inducing perspiration, control urinary tract infections, manage high blood pressure, stop diarrhea, and reduce menstrual pains, it is used in herbal blends for gastrointestinal upset, biliary problems, cough, and congestion, to stimulate the flow of bile, fight inflammation, improve blood clotting, counter infection, and resolve spasms.

 Administration of Yarrow (Achillea): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Yarrow (Achillea)
Herbal classic books: Dosage: An infusion prepared using 1 to 2 teaspoons of dried yarrow is drunk three to four times a day, or applied externally. A common daily dose of the juice is 3 teaspoons, and for the tincture, 1/2 to 1 teaspoon. A bath is made by adding 100 grams of yarrow to 20 liters of water. The fresh leaves and flowering tops are used in a poultice. Two 300 mg flower capsules are taken two to three times a day. The liquid herb extract is taken in doses of 2 to 4 ml.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: The risk for side effects with typically recommended doses of yarrow is low. Excessive doses may cause skin irritation, faintness, sedation, diarrhea, increased urination, or other unwanted reactions. Yarrow may also interfere with anticoagulant and blood-pressure treatments. Stop using the herb if any adverse reactions occur. Pregnant women should avoid the herb as it contains trace amounts of thujone, and it can cause miscarriage at certain doses, individuals with epilepsy should also use the herb with caution. The FDA considers yarrow safe to use in commercial beverages as long as all of the potentially toxic substance thujone has been removed.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Yarrow:knight's milfoil or sanguinary.

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