Introduction of Zi Su Zi:Perilla Fruit or Fructus Perillae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., ②.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants species, the features of the herb Perilla Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Perillae(Perilla Fruit).

Perilla Fruit:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Zǐ.
 English Name: Perilla Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Perillae is the dried mature fruit of Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., used as an antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant for treating chronic bronchitis with thin white phlegm and stuffy feeling in the chest, and also as an aperient for relieving constipation, often simplified as Su Zi.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Perillae is the dried ripe fruit of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. It is also known as Perilla Seed or Purple Perilla Seed.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Perillae as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Perilla frutescens (L.)Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dried ripe fruit of species of the same family:(1). Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., (2). Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa:growing shrubs in field Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, the plant grows up to 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stems are upright, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse prismatic, and densely pilose. Leaves are opposite; Petiole is 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long hairs; Leaf blade is broadly ovate, ovoid or ovate-triangular, 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, the apex is tapering or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, the base is rounded or broadly cuneate, the margin is coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, both surfaces are purple, or only the under surface is purple, both surfaces have sparse pubescence, relatively dense along the veins, the under surface of the leaf has fine point oil glands; Lateral veins are 7–8 pairs, veins at lower part slightly approach, obliquely ascending. Verticillaster, 2 flowers cluster to one side and form false raceme, terminal and axillary, inflorescence are densely pilose; Bracts are oval (egg-shaped), ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire-edge, ciliate, glandular points on outside, margin is membranous; Pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx is campanulate, about 3 mm long, 10 veins, the lower part of outer surface is densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical end has 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip is broad and big, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, enlarged during fruiting period, base is saccate; Corolla is lip-shape, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube has hair rings inside, outside is pubescent, upper lip is slightly concave, lower lip is 3-lobed, lobes are nearly round, middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers are 2-locule; floral disc is distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary is 4-lobed, style is subbasal, stigma is 2-locule; Nutlets are subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, fruit calyx is about 10 mm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa:growing shrubs Ecological environment: The plant grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant is distributed in the east, south, northwest, north, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant likes a warm, humid climate, it grows vigorously in a sunny environment, a high yield. The loose, fertile, irrigation, and drainage convenient soil is appropriate for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is known as Fructus Perillae Argutae, or Zǐ Sū Zǐ. The small nutlets are ovoid or nearly spheroidal (round-likely roundness), diameter is 0.6~2 mm. The surface is taupe brown or taupe (grayish-brown), with a slightly raised dark purple reticulated pattern, the base is slightly pointed, with an ash grey (grayish-white) dotted fruit stalk mark. The pericarp is thin, brittle, and easily crushed. The seed is yellowish white, the seed coat is membranous, and there are 2 cotyledons, which are off-white, and oily. The seed has an aromatic fragrance when crushed, it tastes slightly spicy (pungent). The herb of better grade has big grains and is full, taupe brown, and oily.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anticancer effect, and prolongs the survival rate and improves the survival ability of the rats with spontaneous hypertension.

 Medicinal efficacy: Down bear Qi (sending down abnormally ascending), clear phlegm, moisten lung, loose intestine, indicated for the treatment of cough, asthma due to excessive phlegm, Qi stagnation, constipation.

 Administration of Fructus Perillae (Zǐ Sū Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Perillae (Zǐ Sū Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), extract juice to drink or prepare to pill,powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.

(2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.acuta Thunb.Kudo.:growing shrubs Botanical description: The plant is also known as the wild perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that: the fruit calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, the undersurface is sparsely pilose, with glandular points; the stem is pubescent; the leaves are smaller, oval, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, both surfaces are sparsely pilose. Nutlet is small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The seeds are slightly smaller, 0.6~1.5 mm in diameter, a few reach 2 mm in diameter, the surface is brown or taupe brown, and the outer layer often peels off, exposing the light yellow stone cell layer. The herb of better grade has big grains and is full, taupe brown, and oily.
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