Introduction of Zi Su Zi:Perilla Fruit or Fructus Perillae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Perilla Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., ②.Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants species, the features of the herb Perilla Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Perillae(Perilla Fruit).

Perilla Fruit:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Zǐ.
 English Name: Perilla Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Perillae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Perillae is the dried ripe fruit of Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.(family labiatiae), used as an antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant for treating chronic bronchitis with thin white phlegm and stuffy feeling in the chest, and also as an aperient for relieving constipation, often simplified as Su Zi.

 Botanical source: The herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf) is the dried ripe fruit of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(the mint or deadnettle family) family of the Lamiales order. It is also known as Perilla Seed or Purple Perilla Seed.

 Common official herbal classics defined the herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè) as the dried ripe fruit of (1). Perilla frutescens (L.)Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dried ripe fruit of species of the same family:(1). Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt., (2). Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.


 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa:growing shrubs in field Botanical description: It is also known as Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.Var.crispa (Thumb.)Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Herbs annual, 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stem erect, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse tetraphenous, densely villous. Leaves opposite; Petiole 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long serrate hairs; Leaf blade broadly ovate, round or oval, triangle, oval 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, apex acuminate or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, two purple or purple below, only both sides were sparse hairs, along the veins of relatively dense, the leaf has a fine point oil glands; Lateral veins 7-8 pairs, lower slightly proximate, obliquely ascending. Inflorescences rosette, 2-flowered to one side into pseudo-racemes, terminal and axillary, inflorescence densely villous; Bracts ovate, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular, margin membranous; Pedicels 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx campanulate, ca. 3 mm long, 10 veined, outer densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip broad, 3 teeth, lower lip 2 teeth, sometimes enlarged, base saccate; Corolla lip, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube with hair rings, outside pilose, upper lip slightly concave, lower lip 3-lobed, lobes nearly round, middle lobes larger; 4 stamens, 2 strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary 4-lobed, style subbasal, stigma 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; Pistil 1, ovary 4-lobed, style basal, stigma 2-lobed. Nutlets subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, calyx ca. 10 mm. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.crispa:growing shrubs Ecological environment and distribution: The plant grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, it is also cultivated. Resource distribution: it is widely cultivated throughout China. The plant mainly distributes in east, south, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The small nutlets are oval or spheroidal, with a diameter of 0.6~2 mm. The surface is taupe brown or grayish-brown, with slightly raised dark purple net pattern, slightly pointed base, and grayish-white dotted fruit stalk mark. The peel is thin, brittle and easily crushed. The seed is yellowish white, the seed coat is membranous, and there are 2 cotyledons, which are off-white and oily. The seed has aromatic fragrance when crushed, it tastes slightly spicy(pungent).

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anticancer effect, and prolongs the survival rate and improves the survival ability of the rats with spontaneous hypertension.

 Medicinal efficacy: Down bear Qi, clear phlegm, moisten lung, loose intestine, indicated for the treatment of cough, asthma due to excessive phlegm, Qi stagnation, constipation.

 Administration of Fructus Perillae(Zǐ Sū Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Perillae(Zǐ Sū Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),extract juice to drink or prepare to pill,powder;③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.

(2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo.


 Perilla frutescensL.Britt.Var.acuta Thunb.Kudo.:growing shrubs Botanical description: The plant is also known as wild perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that the calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, sparsely pilose below, glandular; Stem pubescent; Leaves smaller, ovate, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, sparsely pilose on both sides. Nuts are small, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. It is flowering from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Characters of herbs: The seeds are slightly smaller, 0.6~1.5 mm in diameter, a few reach to 2 mm in diameter, the surface is brown or grayish brown, and the outer layer often peeling off, exposing the light yellow stone cell layer.
 
Antiasthmatics Herbs.

 Introduction: Antiasthmatics: an agent or substance herbs that relieves cough and asthma(or dyspnea), usually by ventilating, clearing or moistening the lung, or directing lung Qi downward, stringing lung Qi or resolving phlegm.
 
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  • 1.Introduction of Zi Su Zi:Perilla Fruit or Fructus Perillae.

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