Introduction of Ting Li Zi:Pepperweed Seed,Tansy Mustard Seed or Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Antiasthmatics Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon04 Introduction: Antiasthmatics: an agent or substance herbs that relieves cough and asthma(or dyspnea), usually by ventilating, clearing or moistening the lung, or directing lung Qi downward, stringing lung Qi or resolving phlegm.

 
Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae(Pepperweed Seed or Tansy Mustard Seed).

Lepidium apetalum Willd Pin Yin Name: Tínɡ Lì Zǐ.
 English Name: Pepperweed Seed or Tansy Mustard Seed.
 Latin Name: Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae is the dried ripe seed of Lepidium apetalum Willd. Or Descurainia sophia(L.) Webb ex Prantl.(family Cruciferae), used (1).to purge the lung for relieving cough and dyspnea with excessive phlegm, and (2).to induce diuresis for treating edema. It is commonly known as Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae, Pepperweed Seed or Tansy Mustard Seed, Ting Li Zi.

 Botanical source: The herb Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae(Pepperweed Seed or Tansy Mustard Seed) is the dried ripe seed of Lepidium apetalum Willd. Or Descurainia sophia(L.)Webb ex Prantl., they are plants of the Lepidium genus, the Brassicaceae family of the Brassicales order. It is also known as Seed of Pepperweed, Seed of Peppergrass, Seed of Flixweed Tansymustard, Pepperweed Seed Tansymustard Seed or Tínɡ Lì Zǐ.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae(Pepperweed Seed or Tansy Mustard Seed) as the dried ripe seed of:(1). Lepidium apetalum Willd., or (2). Descurainia sophia(L.) Webb ex Prantl., or (3). Lepidium virginicum L. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Lepidium apetalum Willd (1).Lepidium apetalum Willd.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Tínɡ Lì, or Du Xing Cai. Annual herb or biennial herb, 5~30 cm tall. Stem erect, or with many branches from the base, covered with white minute capitate hairs. Basal leaf has petiole, petiole 1~2 cm long; Leaf blade narrowly spatulate or oblanceolate, primary pinnately lobed or deeply lobed, 3~5 cm long, 1~1.5 cm wide, apex acute, margin sparsely incised serrate, base tapering; Cauline leaves lanceolate or oblong, central leaf 1.5~2 cm long, 2~5 mm wide, base slightly wide, sessile, appressed cauline, margin sparsely toothed; Uppermost leaf linear, apex acute, margin rarely sparsely toothed or nearly entire; Both surfaces glabrous or sparsely capitate. Racemes terminal, fruiting up to 5 cm; Flowers small and loosely arranged; 4 sepals, subovate, margin white membranous, outside with curved white pilose; Petals absent or reduced to filamentous, shorter than sepals; 2 or 4 stamens, equal length; 4 Nectary, short; 1 pistil, ovary ovoid and oblate, style absent, stigma rounded and oblate. Shorthorn oval or elliptic, 2~3 mm long, flat, apex slightly concave, persistent very short flower branch, fruit petal top with very narrow wing, false diaphragm width less than 1 mm. Seeds elliptic ovate, smooth, reddish-brown or tawny. It is flowering from May to June, fruiting from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant is a common weed in the field, which is growing on slopes, beside ditches, roadsides, and near villages with an altitude of 400~2,000 meters above sea level. The plant mainly distributes in the north, northwest, east, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm, moist, sunny environment, suitable for cultivation in fertile soil, loose, good drainage slope.

 Lepidium apetalum Willd Characters of herbs: Seeds are oblate ovate, 1~1.5 mm long, 0.5~1 mm wide. The surface is yellowish-brown or reddish-brown, slightly shiny, with most fine granular processes, and 2 longitudinal shallow grooves, one of which is more obvious, one end is blunt, the other end is acuminate and slightly concave, the umbilicus is at the lower part of the concave, but not obvious. No odor, slightly bitter taste, strong viscosity.

 Pharmacological actions: The alcohol extracts from dried seeds of Descurainia sophia and Lepidium apetalum Willd showed strong cardiac function, which could stop the systolic phase of the heart of the dominant frog. Studies on reigning rabbits, cat hearts, cat cardiopulmonary devices, and cat electrocardiogram all strengthened heart contraction, slowed heart rhythm, and heart block.

 Medicinal efficacy: Removing heat from lung and relieving asthma, activate water circulation and reduce the swelling, indicated for the treatment of sputum obstruction of lung, wheezing and coughing with much phlegm, chest distension pain, and dysuria(difficulty in micturition).

 Administration of Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae(Tínɡ Lì Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae(Tínɡ Lì Zǐ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams,decoct wrapped(CP), Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:wash with water decoction or grinded into fine powder and apply stick(DCTM), Internally: water decoction, 3~9 grams, grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:prpper amount, wash with water decoction or grinded into fine powder and apply stick.Better use raw herbs for activating water circulation and reduce swelling, better use fried herbs for treatment of phlegm retention and asthma, better use honey fried herb for lung deficiency phlegm retention and asthma cough(CHMM).


 Descurainia sophia L.Webb ex Prantl. (2).Descurainia sophia(L.)Webb ex Prantl.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Bo Niang Hao. Herbs annual or biennial, 20~80 cm tall. The whole plant was grey. Stem erect, upper branched, with longitudinal spindle grooves, densely divided into branched pubescent. Leaves oblong or oblong-oblong-lanceolate, 3~7 cm long, 1~4 cm wide, 2~3-gyrus pinnate completely lobed or deeply lobed, ultimate lobes oblong or striate, 2~5 mm long, apex obtuse, entire, both surfaces branched pubescent; Stem lower leaf has petiole, upward petiole gradually shorten or nearly sessile. Racemes terminal, with many flowers; 4 sepals, striate oblong, apex obtuse, 2 mm long, margin membranous, abaxially branched pubescent; Petals yellow, spatulate, subequal with sepals; 6 stamens, several as long as petals, base and clawed; Pistil 1, ovary cylindrical, style short, stigma flattened capitate. Longhorn cylindric, 2.5~3 cm long, glabrous, slightly indented, out of line with fruit stalk, middle veins distinct. Seeds 1 row per chamber, shape small, almost round, slightly flat, reddish-brown, surface with fine reticulations, after wet viscose material. Its flower and fruit period is from April to July.

 Descurainia sophia L.Webb ex Prantl. Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides, fields, and farmlands. The plant mainly distributes in the north, northwest, east, and southwest areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is oblong and slightly flat, the length is 0.8~1.2 mm, width is about 0.5 mm; The surface is yellowish-brown, one end is obtuse, the other end is slightly concave or relatively flat, the center is concave, the seed umbilicus is located below the concave, the seed surface has fine reticulated and 2 vertical shallow grooves. Smells slightly, slightly pungent taste, slightly viscous.

 Lepidium virginicum L. (3).Lepidium virginicum L.:
 Botanical description: It is also known as Qin Ye Tínɡ Lì. Herbs annual or biennial, 20~50 cm tall. Stem erect, simple, surface with columnar glandular hairs; Upper branches sparsely pubescent or nearly glabrous. Leaves alternate; Basal leaves stipitate, petiole 1~1.5 cm long; Leaf blade oblanceolate, 1~5 cm long, pinnately divided or large pinnately divided, lobes are unequal, ovate or oblong, basally narrow, margin serrate, both surfaces shortly pubescent; Cauline leaves shortly stipitate, leaf blade oblanceolate or linear, 1.5~5 cm long, 2~10 mm wide, glaucous acute, base attenuate. Racemes terminal, flowers numerous; 4 isoclines, green, ovate or elliptic, 1 mm; 4 petals, white, obovate, equal to or slightly longer than sepals; 2 or 4 stamens, subequal, 1.5~2 mm long; 1 pistil, ovary ovoid and flattened, 2-loculate, style inconspicuous, stigma capitate. Fruit suborbicular, 3 mm long, 1~2 mm wide, flattened, apex slightly concave, margin narrowly winged, style extremely short. 1 seed per chamber, ovate, 1 mm long, smooth, reddish-brown, margin with white narrow wings. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on roadsides, wasteland, and fields. The plant mainly distributes in the Yangtze River area and the Zhujiang River area of China.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ting Li Zi:Pepperweed Seed,Tansy Mustard Seed or Semen Lepidii seu Descurainiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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