Introduction of Zhe Bei Mu:Thunbery Fritillary Bulb or Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Thunbery Fritillary Bulb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Thunbery Fritillary Bulb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii(Thunbery Fritillary Bulb).

a pile of herb of Thunbery Fritillary Bulb Pin Yin Name: Zhè Bèi Mǔ.
 English Name: Thunbery Fritillary Bulb.
 Latin Name: Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii is the dried bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., used (1).to clear heat and resolve phlegm in cases of cough with thick expectoration, and (2).to reduce nodulation in cases of mastitis and scrofula. The herb is commonly known as Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii, Thunbery Fritillary Bulb, Zhè Bèi Mǔ.

 Botanical source: The herb Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (Thunbery Fritillary Bulb) is the dried bulb of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., it is a plant of the Fritillaria L. genus, the Liliaceae family (lily family) of the Liliflorae order. It is also known as Bulb of Thunberg Fritillary or Zhè Bèi Mǔ.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (Thunbery Fritillary Bulb) as the dried bulb of:(1).Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Fritillaria thunbergii Miq.

 several flowering plants of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Botanical description: Fritillaria thunbergii Miq is also known as Fritillaria collicola Hance; Fritillaria verticillata Willd.var.thunbergii (Miq.) Baker. It is commonly known as Zhè Bèi Mǔ, a perennial herb, the plant grows up to 50~80 cm high. The bulb is oblate, 1.5~4 cm in diameter, with 2 white, thick scaly leaves connate. Leaves are opposite at the bottom of the stem, gradually upward, and often both scattered, opposite, and whorled; leaf blades are bar-shaped to lanceolate, 7~11 cm long, 1~2.5 cm wide, and the apex is not curly or slightly curved.

 a flowering plant of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq,with eight flowers 1~6 flowers, pale yellow (faint yellow), sometimes slightly purplish, apical flowers have 3~4 leaflike bracts, other flowers have 2 bracts; apex of bracts is curly; flowers are campaniform (bell-shaped), pendulous (cernuous), 6 tepals, long elliptical, 2~4 cm long, 1~1.5 cm wide, inner and outer floral whorls are similar, the internal surface has purple grid markings, the base has nectaries above; 6 stamens, about 2/5 of the tepal length; anthers are subbasal, filaments have no papillae; stigma segment length is 1.5~2 mm.

 Capsularfruit is ovoid, has 6 ribs, 2~2.2 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, and has 6~8 mm wings on the ribs. Its flowering period is from March to April, and the fruiting period is in May.

 a drawing of Fritillaria thunbergii Miq,whole plant with flower petals,flower buds and rhizome Ecological environment: The plant grows in shady places on hills or in bamboo forests, in areas of lower elevation. Resource distribution: the plant is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid, maritime climate with abundant rainfall, is tolerant of cold, and avoids waterlogging. At a temperature around 17 °C (Celsius, or 62.6 degrees Fahrenheit), the stem and leaves above ground grow rapidly, at a temperature over 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit), the plant grows slowly and gradually turns withered when the temperature keeps rising, the underground squamous bulb enters the dormancy stage. Its growth stage is about three and a half months, so it is known as an ephemeral plant. It is appropriate to choose a field with sufficient sunshine, deep soil layers, fertile, loose, good drainage, and subacid or neutral sandy loam for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: ①. The pearl fritillary bulb is a complete squamous bulb, it is also known as Zhu Bei, oblate and 1~2.5 cm in diameter, and 1~1.5 cm high. The surface is whitish (almost white), and the two scales of the outer layer are thick and folding, has 2~3 scale leaves and residual stem inside. The texture of the herb is strong and fragile, making it easy to break, and the fracture surface is white with rich mealiness (powder). The herb has a slight smell and tastes bitter. ②. The big fritillary bulb is a monopetalous hypertrophic scaly leaf in the shape of an ingot or rhombus, 2~4 cm long, 1~2.5 cm high, and 0.6~1.5 cm thick; the outer surface is whitish (almost white) to light yellowish white, with light brown spots, and the inner surface is whitish (almost white) to yellowish white. The herb of a better grade has hypertrophic scales, the texture of the herb is firm and solid, rich mealiness (powder), and the fracture surface is white.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Effects on smooth muscle and glands; ②.Effect on circulatory system and respiration.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and reduce phlegm, expelling stagnation and eliminating stagnation, indicated for wind-heat, dry heat, pyrophlegm cough, abscess of the lung, acute mastitis, scrofula, ulcer sore poison, depressed in heart and chest.

 Administration of Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (Zhè Bèi Mǔ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (Zhè Bèi Mǔ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams, ②.1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), ③.3~10 grams, water decoction; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply.
 Precautions: should not be combined with herbs of Aconiti species.




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