Introduction of Sang Bai Pi:White Mulberry Root-bark or Cortex Mori.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb White Mulberry Root-bark, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Morus alba L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb White Mulberry Root-bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Cortex Mori(White Mulberry Root-bark).

dried herb slices of White Mulberry Root-bark. Pin Yin Name: Sāng Bái Pí.
 English Name: White Mulberry Root-bark.
 Latin Name: Cortex Mori.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Cortex Mori is the dried root-bark, deprived of the external brown corky part, of Morus alba L., used (1).to purge the lung and relieve dyspnea for treating lung heat with cough and dyspnea, and (2).to induce diuresis in cases of edema. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Mori, White Mulberry Root-bark, Sāng Bái Pí.

 Botanical source: The herb Cortex Mori (White Mulberry Root-bark) is the dried root-bark of Morus alba L., it is a plant of the Morus genus, the Moraceae family (mulberry, fig family) of the Rosales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Morus alba L.

 small shrubs of Morus alba growing in a field Botanical description: Morus alba L is commonly known as the Mulberry Tree, White Mulberry, or Sang Shu. The plant is a deciduous shrub or small tree, and the tree grows up to 3~15 meters high. The bark is ash gray (grayish-white), has stripe-shaped lobes, and the root bark is yellowish-brown or reddish-yellow, strong fibrous. Simple leaves are alternate, petioles are 1~2.5 cm long; leaf blades are ovate to broad-ovate, 5~20 cm long, and 4~10 cm wide, the apex is sharp pointed or acuminate, the base is circular or nearly cordate, coarsely serrate or crenate on the edge, sometimes has irregular lobes, the upper surface is glabrous, glossy; there are short hairs on the veins of the undersurface, piliferous in the leaf axil, 3 veins from the base cross veinlet and form reticulated lines, conspicuous on the undersurface; stipules are lanceolate, caducous.

 Flowers are unisexual (separate), and dioecious; male inflorescence and female inflorescence are arranged in spicate catkins, axillary; female inflorescences are 1~2 cm long, are pilose, peduncles are 5~10 mm long; male inflorescences are 1~2.5 cm long, pendulous, and slightly covered by fine hairs; the staminate flower has 4 perianth lobes, 4 stamens, and a sterile stamen in the center; the pistillate flower has 4 perianth lobes, base connate, stigma is 2-lobed.

 Achenes are numerous and densely cluster into an ovoid or oblong aggregate fruit, 1~2.5 cm long, green at the initial stage, when mature, it gradually turns pulpose, black purple or red. The seed is small. Its flowering period is from April to May, and the fruiting period is from May to June.

 Ecological environment: The mulberry tree grows in hills, on mountain slopes, and in fields around villages, field, and mostly cultivated. The tree is distributed in most areas of China, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

 fresh mulberry leaves growing on branches of Morus alba L. Growth characteristics: The mulberry tree prefers a warm and moist climate, slightly resistant to shade. Its seedlings start to grow out when the temperature is over 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit), suitable temperature for plant growth is 25~30 °C (Celsius, or 77~86 degrees Fahrenheit), growth is inhibited when the temperature is over 40 °C (Celsius, or 104 degrees Fahrenheit), growth is stopped when the temperature is lower than 12 °C (Celsius, or 53.6 degrees Fahrenheit). The mulberry tree is tolerant to drought, tolerant to aridity, and not tolerant to water logging. It has a strong adaptability to the soil.

 Characters of herbs: The root cortex is twisted in the shape of a coiling block (reel), a groove, or en plaque (plate-like), in different lengths and widths, and its thickness is 1~4 mm. The outer surface is white or light yellowish-white, relatively flat, with some residual orange or brown scaly raw bark; the inner surface is yellowish-white or grayish-yellow, with fine vertical lines. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is flexible, strong fibrous, difficult to break, easy to tear longitudinally, and there is dust flying when it is broken. The herb has a slight smell, and it tastes slight sweet. The herb of a better grade is white, has a thick cortex, and is flexible.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antihypertensive effect; ②.Effects on the cardiovascular system; ③.Diuretic and cathartic effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Removing heat from the lung and relieving asthma, inducing diuresis to alleviate edema, indicated for lung heat dyspnea cough, edema and distension fullness, oliguria(abnormally small amount of urine), facial and skin edema.

 Administration of Cortex Mori (Sāng Bái Pí): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Mori (Sāng Bái Pí)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.water decoction, 2~5 qian (about 6~15 grams), or prepared into powder; Externally:proper amount, extract to juice and apply, or wash with water decoction; ③.9~15 grams, water decoction; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to powder. Externally:proper amount, extract to juice and apply, or wash with water decoction.




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