Introduction of Sha Ji:Fructus Hippophae or Seabuckthorn Fruit.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Seabuckthorn Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Hippophae rhamnoides L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Seabuckthorn Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Hippophae(Seabuckthorn Fruit).

a pile of dried seabuckthorn fruit berries Pin Yin Name: Shā Jí.
 English Name: Seabuckthorn Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Hippophae.
 Property and flavor: warm, sour, pickery.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Hippophae is the dried ripe fruit of Hippophae rhamnoides L.(family Elaeagnaceae), used (1).as an antitussive and expectorant for treating cough with profuse phlegm, (2).as a stomachic for dyspepsia and abdominal pain due to undigested food, and (3).to promote blood circulation and remove stasis for treating traumatic wounds and amenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Hippophae, Seabuckthorn Fruit, Shā Jí.

 Botanical source: The herb Fructus Hippophae (Seabuckthorn Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of the Hippophae rhamnoides L., it is a plant of the Hippophae genus, the Elaeagnaceae family (oleaster family) of the Rosales order. There are two commonly used subspecies (1).Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi., and (2).Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi. These commonly used two subspecies are introduced:

(1).Hippophae rhamnoides L.

 many orange color small berries growing on fruiting tree of Hippophae rhamnoides,with leaves Botanical description: Hippophae rhamnoides L is a plant of the Elaeagnaceae family (oleaster family) and Hippophae L. genus, it is commonly known as Hippophae rhamnoides, or Cu Liu (means vinegar salix), or Sha Ji (means bramble and thorns grow in sands), its main subspecies produced in China is Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi, it is also known as Hippophae rhamnoides auct.non L., or Hippophae rhamnoides L.var.procera Rehd. This species is commonly known as Chinese Seabuckthorn. Another subspecies normally used is Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi.

 Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi is commonly known as Chinese Seabuckthorn, a deciduous shrub or tree. The shrub grows up to 1~5 meters high, it can grow up to 18 meters in high mountain valleys, has many thorns, stout, terminal, or lateral; young twigs are brownish-green, densely covered with silvery white with brown scales or sometimes with white stellate hair, old branches are black-grey, coarse; buds are large, golden or rusty. Simple leaves are usually subopposite; petioles are very short; leaf blades are chartaceous (papery), narrowly lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 3~8 cm long, about 1 cm wide, both ends are obtuse or the base is orbicular, the upper surface is green, covered with white peltate hair or stellate pilose in the early stage, the undersurface is silvery or pale white, covered with scales.

 Fruits are spherical, 4~6 mm in diameter, orange-yellow, or orange; the carpopodium (fruit stalk) is 1~2.5 mm long. Seeds are small, black or purple-black, and glossy. Its flowering period is from April to May, and the fruiting period is from September to October.

 a fruiting tree of Hippophae rhamnoides with many small yellow berries Growth characteristics: Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi grows on sunny slopes, desert valley terraces, flat sandy lands and gravel slopes, in areas at altitudes of 800~3,600 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in the northern, northwest, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The fruit is spheroidal or oblate, with a single or several conglutination, single fruits are 5-8 mm in diameter; the surface is brownish red or dark brown, wrinkled, and often has a short small carpopodium (fruit stalk); the fruit pulp is oily (oleosus), soft. The seeds are oblate, 2.5~4 mm long, and 2 mm wide, the surface is brown, with a hilum at the narrow end, there is a micropyle at the other end and a vertical groove on each side; the seed coat (spermoderm) is hard, when it is broken, the cotyledons are cream white (milky white) and oily. The herb has a slight smell and tastes sour and puckery. The herb of a better grade has big grains, thick pulp, and is oily.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Effects on the heart; ②.the effect of preventing thrombosis, and has a certain anti-coagulation effect; ③. Hypolipidemic effect; ④. Anti-gastric ulcer; ⑤.Liver protective effects; ⑥.Anti-oxidation and anti-aging effect; ⑦. Resistance to cold, fatigue, and hypoxia; ⑧. Immune-enhancing effects; ⑨. Resistance mutation, antitumor effect; ⑩. The anti-allergic effect; ⑾. Anti-radiation effect; ⑿.Glycemia lowering effect; ⒀. Other functions.

 Medicinal efficacy: Relieve cough and expectoration, help digestion and eliminate stagnation, activate blood circulation, and dissipate stasis. The herb is indicated for a cough with much phlegm, indigestion, food accumulation and abdominal pain, blood stasis and amenia, traumatic injury, and bruises.

 Administration of Fructus Hippophae (Shā Jí): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Hippophae (Shā Jí)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.3~9 grams, water decoction; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply.

(2).Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi.

 a fruiting tree of Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi,with leaves Botanical description: Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi is a plant of the Elaeagnaceae family (oleaster family) and Hippophae L. genus, it is commonly known as Yunnan Seabuckthorn, or Yun Nan Sha Ji (means Seabuckthorn grows in Yunnan, China.).

 Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi. has some differences from Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi. The main differences are: leaves are alternate, the undersurface of the leaf is usually covered with rust-colored scales, rarely gray-white; the fruit berry is spherical, 5~6 mm in diameter; seeds are black, elliptical, and about 3.5 mm long.

 Growth characteristics: Hippophae rhamnoides L.subsp.yunnanensis Rousi grows on arid valley sand, gravel land, dense forest on slopes or alpine meadows in areas at altitudes of 2,200~3,700 meters above sea level. It is mainly distributed in the southwest area of China.



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