Introduction of Bai Guo:Semen Ginkgo or Ginkgo Seed.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Ginkgo Seed, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Ginkgo biloba L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant, the features of the herb Ginkgo Seed, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Semen Ginkgo(Ginkgo Seed).

a pile of Ginkgo Seeds Pin Yin Name: Bái Guǒ.
 English Name: Ginkgo Seed.
 Latin Name: Semen Ginkgo.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature,sweet,bitter,puckery,toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Semen Ginkgo is the dried ripe seed of the maiden-hair tree, Ginkgo biloba L., used (1).as an antitussive and anti-asthmatic for prolonged cough or asthma with profuse expectoration, (2).to check leukorrhagia, and (3).to reduce urination in cases of enuresis and frequent micturition. The herb is commonly known as Semen Ginkgo, Ginkgo Seed, Bái Guǒ.

 The Ginkgo Biloba comes from the Ginkgo tree, and is one of the oldest living tree species. The Ginkgo tree has been around for 150 to 200 million years. Chinese have used Ginkgo for thousands of years for various ailments. Ginkgo Biloba was first introduced to Europe in the 1700s, and is now used widely. Ginkgo Biloba is one of the most researched herbs. Ginkgo Biloba is used by Chinese to relief asthma, lung congestion, it was also used to increase sexual energy, regulate blood flow, and promote general longevity.

 Botanical source: The herb Semen Ginkgo (Ginkgo Seed) is the dried ripe seed of the Ginkgo biloba L., it is a plant of the Ginkgo genus, the Ginkgoaceae family of the Ginkgoales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Ginkgo biloba L.

 pale green fruits growing on branches of Ginkgo biloba tree with many green leaves Botanical description: Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous tree, the tree grows up to 40 meters high. The tree has long branches and short branches, the bark of a young tree is ficelle (light grayish brown), has a shallow fissuring, old bark turns taupe (grayish-brown), and has a deep fissuring. Leaves grow sparsely and spirally on a long branch, 3~5 or 8 leaves grow in a tuft on short branches; petioles are 3~10 cm long; leaf blades are fan-shaped, light green, glabrous, have many parallel bifurcated veinlets, the upper edge is 5~8 cm wide, sinuolate, sometimes the center is lobed or parted.

 The tree is dioecious; flowers are unisexual (separate.), rarely homophytic; strobiles grow in the axil of the scale leaf on the front end of short branches, and male strobile is a catkin, pendulous, female strobile has a long pedicel, the end of pedical is usually dichotomous; a disc-shaped bead seat grows on the end of each branch pedical, each bead seat has one ovule; only one develops into seed.

 Seeds are pruniform (in drupe shape), elliptical to globular shape, 2.5–3.5 cm long, about 2 cm in diameter; the testa or exocarp is pulpose, glaucous (has white powder on the surface), and turns light yellow or orange at maturity; the mesosperm is bony, white and has 2~3 edges; the endotesta is membranous, the endosperm is rich. Its flowering period is from March to April, and the seed's maturing period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: Ginkgo tree grows in areas at altitudes of 500~1,000 meters above sea level, in natural forests, and in acid soils with good drainage, it is cultivated in many areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Ginkgo tree prefers a warm and humid climate, like the sunshine, is tolerant of coldness, and drought, and avoids water logging. The tree grows well in the area with an average annual temperature of 10~18 °C (Celsius, or 50~64.4 degrees Fahrenheit), the lowest temperature in winter not lower than -20 °C (Celsius, or -4 degrees Fahrenheit), annual precipitation 600~1,500 mm, grows well in fields with deep soil layers, sandy loam. It should not be cultivated on shady slopes, salt-heavy soil (heavily salinized soil), or fields with waterlogging.

 Characters of herbs: The seed without exocarp is oval (egg-shaped) or elliptical shape, 1.5~3 cm long, and 1~2.2 cm wide. The hull (mesosperm) is bony and smooth, and the surface is yellow-white or light brown, with a dot-like protrusion at the base, one ridge at both edges, and occasionally three ridges. The endotesta (endothelium, inner seed coat) is membranous, reddish brown, or light yellowish-brown. The kernel is oblate, light yellow-green, the endosperm is thickening, and has mealiness, and there is a gap in the middle; and the embryo is tiny. The herb has no smell and tastes slightly sweet and bitter. The herb of a better grade has a yellow white shell, and the kernel is full, and the fracture surface is light yellow.

 The seed is collected at the end of autumn when the seed is mature; remove the pulpose testa, wash and clean, dry in the sun, and crack and break to take the seed kernel when needed.

 several mature ginkgo fruits growing in two clusters on branches of Ginkgo biloba tree with yellowing leaves Pharmacological actions: The nitrogen-free neutral component of ginkgo seed kernel can make mice convulse, medulla oblongata paralysis, followed by cessation of breathing and cardiac arrest and death. Raw ginkgo seed is toxic, excessive eating can lead to vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, convulsions, restlessness, breathing difficulties, and other symptoms, common rescue measures are gastric lavage, catharsis, taking egg white and activated charcoal; also with symptomatic treatment, such as taking sedatives, diuretics, intravenous injection of hypertonic glucose, oxygen supply, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Astringing lung for relieving asthma, leukorrhea and turbid discharge, reduce urine, indicated for dyspnea with cough due to much phlegm, leukorrhea and white turbid discharge, enuresis (bed-wetting), frequent micturition (frequent urination), etc.

 Administration of Semen Ginkgo (Bái Guǒ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Semen Ginkgo (Bái Guǒ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 4.5~9 grams; ②.1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams); ③.3~9 grams, water decoction; extract juice or prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick.
 Precautions and Adverse Reactions: it is poisonous if taken rawly, taken rawly or taken overdose with fried herb will lead to poisoning, accidental poisoning in child is especially common.




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