Introduction of Fu Pen Zi:Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit or Fructus Rubi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Rubus chingii Hu., and another usable plant species, ②.Rubus coreanus Miq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Rubi(Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit).

Fructus Rubi:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Fù Pén Zi.
 English Name: Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Rubi.
 Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet, sour.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Rubi is the steamed and dried fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, used as an astringent for the treatment of frequent micturition, enuresis, and seminal emission. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Rubi, Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, Fù Pén Zi.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Rubi (Fu Pen Zi), or the Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit (Fu Pen Zi) as the dry fruit of the Rosaceae family Rubus L. genus plant species (1). Rubus chingii Hu. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Rubi(Fu Pen Zi) as the unripe fruit of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus plant species (1). Rubus chingii Hu., or (2). Rubus coreanus Miq. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Rubus chingii Hu.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Botanical description: The plant, Rubus chingii Hu is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus, it is commonly known as Rubus chingii Hu., Dōng Huá Fù Pén Zi (East China Raspberry), or Zhǎng Yè Fù Pén Zi (Palmleaf Raspberry). Deciduous shrubs, the plant grows up to 2–3 meters high. Young shoots (young twigs) are green, glaucous (has white powder), and have few anatropous thorns.

 Simple leaves are alternate; petioles are 3-4.5 cm long; stipules (peraphyllum) are linear-lanceolate; leaf blades are orbicular (subrotund), 5-9 cm in diameter, palmately 5-parted, central lobe is rhomboid ovate, base is subcordate (nearly cordate), edges are biserrate, leaf veins on both surfaces have white pubescence; basal pentacotyl veins.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Flowers are hermaphroditic; solitary and grow on tip of short branches, 5 calyxes, persistent, ovate-oblong, both surfaces of sepals have pubescence; 5 flower petals, white, elliptic or ovate-oblong, front end is blunt; 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter; pedicels are 2-3.5 cm long; many stamens, filaments are wide and flat; anthers are T-shaped inserted, 2-loculed; many pistils, pubescent, grow and inserted on the raised receptacle.

 Aggregate fruits (composite fruits) are globular (spherical shape), 1.5-2 cm in diameter, red, and pendulous; small drupes (small drupe fruits) have dense ash gray pilose. Its flowering period is from March to April, and the fruiting period is from May to August.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Ecological environment: The roots of Rubus chingii Hu are distributed shallowly and grow in moist, water-free soil. In the wild, it is mostly distributed in forest edges or sparse forests and where there are more moist soils in the ditches, canals, roadsides, on hillsides or mountain slopes, or bushes in shaded places. It grows in areas of lower altitudes to middle elevation areas. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and is concentrated in the Deqing-Sanqingshan area of ​​Jiangxi province, China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers cold and cool climates, avoids hot, and prefers lights but should avoid insolation. It can be cultivated in general soils, but it is appropriate to choose a field with loose, humus-rich, acid yellow loam with good drainage for cultivation.

 Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is an aggregate fruit, which is composed of many small drupes (drupe fruits), slightly conical or near-spherical, the upper tip is blunt, the bottom is flat, 0.6~1.3 cm high, and 0.5~1.2 cm in diameter. The surface is celadon (sage green) or hazel (pale brown), densely covered with ash gray (grayish-white) or celadon short fluff, the persistent calyx is brown, 5-lobed, the front end is mostly broken, there are many remaining filaments on the top, and there are carpopodium marks (marks of fruit stalks) or connect with fine carpopodium on the bottom. The small drupes (small drupe fruits) are semi-lune (half-moon shape), the back is protuberant, and the ventral surface has protruding ridge lines; The surface is brown, with grayish-white hairs on the back and front tip, and reticulated concave lines on both sides of the ventral surface. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard, and it contains one grain of brown seed. The herb has a delicate fragrance, it tastes slightly sour and puckery. The herb of a better grade is complete, full, yellow-green, and has a sour taste.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:flowering plant Main value: The Rubus genus is full of treasure. The bark contains tannins, fibers, leaves can be used for tea, sweeteners, medicinal, tannins. The flower is an important source of honey plants, fruit is edible, medicinal, processed beverages, jams, brewing, sugar, vinegar, juice, etc. Seeds can be used medicinally, pressed oil, roots can be uses as herb medicine, root bark contains tannins, the whole plant can be used as a herb medicine, green ornamental trees and so on. The folks use their fruit to brew wine, make jams, squeeze juice to prepare drinks.

 Medicinal value: The Rubus chingii Hu., or Palmleaf Raspberry is the only one of 194 species of Raspberry that was selected and defined as the official botanical origin in the official herbal classics.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antioxidant:The Raspberry or Fructus Rubi contains numerous catechins and flavonoids, has a strong antioxidant capacity, can clear free radicals in the body, strengthen blood vessels, prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer; ②.antibacterial:water decoction has an antibacterial effect, has an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus, Vibrio cholerae; ③.estrogenlike effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonifying the kidney, supporting Yang, astringent and controlling nocturnal emission, nourishing the liver, improve eyesight (improving acuity of vision). It is indicated for spermatorrhea (nocturnal emission), night emission, asynodia (impotentia, sexual impotence), prospermia (premature ejaculation, ejaculatio praecox), anischuria (enuresis, bedwetting), frequent urination, cold of uterus and infertility, clear and dilute morbid leukorrhea, consumption (consumptive disease), dim eyesight, dim-sighted (blurred vision), premature greying bear and hair, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Rubi (Fù Pén Zi): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Rubi (Fù Pén Zi)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~2 qian (about 4.5~6 grams);infusing in wine, prepare an ointment, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams;or prepared to pill, powder, or infusing in wine, or prepare an ointment.

(2).Rubus coreanus Miq.

 Rubus coreanus Miq.:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant, Rubus coreanus Miq is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus, it is commonly known as Rubus coreanus Miq., or Cha Tian Pao. A shrub, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters tall; stems are upright or curved to arch-shape, reddish-brown, and have uncinate flat prickles. Odd-pinnate compound leaves, 5–7 lobules (leaflets), oval (egg-shaped), elliptic or rhomboid ovate, 3-6 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, the front end is sharp-pointed, the base is broadly cuneate (broadly wedge-shaped) or orbicular (subrotund), edges have orderless subulate sharp serrate, the under surface is celadon (sage green), has pilose or fluff along leaf veins; petioles are 2-4 cm long, small prickles scatter along rachis; stipules (peraphyllum) are strip-shaped.

 Corymbals are apical or axillary, grow on the tip of lateral branches, has several to over 30 flowers, peduncles and pedicels are both covered with ash gray pubescence; pedicels are 5-10 mm long; bracts are linear(filate), have pubescence; flowers are 7~10 mm in diameter, calyx is grayish pubescent outside; sepals are ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 4~6 mm long, front tip is acuminate, edges have fluff, expanded in flowering period, and reflexed in fruiting period; flower petals are obovate, faint red to crimson (deep red), nearly equal length as or slightly shorter than sepals; stamens are shorter or nearly equal length as petals, filaments are pinkish; many pistils; styles are glabrous, ovary is sparsely pubescent.

 Rubus coreanus Miq.:fruiting plant Fruits are subsphaeroidal (near-spherical), 5~8 mm in diameter, dark red to atropurpureus (purple-black), glabrous or glabrate; stone (nut) has wrinkles. Its flowering period is from April to June, and the fruiting is from June to August.

 The hairs on the leaf under surface of this species vary greatly, on the same plant or the same shoots, the under surface of most leaves is glabrous or only has pilose along leaf veins, but the undersurface of fewer leaves is densely tomentose.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillside shrubs or valleys, rivers, and roadsides, in areas at altitudes of 100~1,700 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, northwest, and southwest areas of China.
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