Introduction of Fu Pen Zi:Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit or Fructus Rubi.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Rubus chingii Hu., and another usable plant species, ②.Rubus coreanus Miq., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Rubi(Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit).

Fructus Rubi:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Fù Pén Zi.
 English Name: Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Rubi.
 Property and flavor: warm nature, tastes sweet, sour.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Rubi is the steamed and dried fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, used as an astringent for the treatment of frequent micturition, enuresis, and seminal emission. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Rubi, Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit, Fù Pén Zi.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Rubi(Fu Pen Zi), or the Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit(Fu Pen Zi) as the dry fruit of the Rosaceae family Rubus L. genus plant species (1). Rubus chingii Hu. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Rubi(Fu Pen Zi) as the unripe fruit of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus plant species (1). Rubus chingii Hu., or (2). Rubus coreanus Miq. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Rubus chingii Hu.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Botanical description: The Rubus chingii Hu., is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Rubus chingii Hu.", or "Dōng Huá Fù Pén Zi (East China Raspberry)", or "Zhǎng Yè Fù Pén Zi (Palmleaf Raspberry)". Leaves are simple, suborbicular, 4~9 cm in diameter, both surfaces are pilose or glabrous only along leaf veins, base is cordate, margin is palmate, deeply lobed, sparsely 3 or 7-lobed, lobes are elliptic or ribose-ovate, apex is acuminate, base is narrowed, upper and distal lobes are subequal or slightly longer, with heavy serrate, 5-veined palmate; petiole is 2~4 cm long, micropilose or glabrous, sparsely small prickles; stipules are linear-lanceolate.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Single flowered axillary, 2.5~4 cm in diameter; pedicel is 2~4 cm long, glabrous; calyx hairs are thin or subglabrous; sepals are ovate or ovate-oblong, apically convex, outside is densely pubescent; petals are elliptic or ovate-oblong, white, apically rounded, 1~1.5 cm long, 0.7~1.2 cm wide; stamens are numerous, filaments are broadly flat; pistil is numerous, pilose.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:fruiting plant Ecological environment: The roots of Rubus chingii Hu are distributed shallowly and grow in moist, water-free soil. In the wild, it is mostly distributed in forest margins or sparse forests and where there are more moist soils in the ditch, canal, road, and hillside. It grows in low-to-middle-altitude areas, it is common on the hillside, in the stream or hillside forest, roadside sun, or overcast bushes. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, and is concentrated in the Deqing-Sanqingshan area of ​​Jiangxi province, China.

 Growth characteristics: Although most of the natural growth environment soil layer is shallow, the soil is loose and rich in humus, it likes the sun and cold, it is not resistant to sun exposure.

 Palmleaf Raspberry Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is an aggregate fruit, which is made up of many small drupes, slightly conical or spheroidal, with a blunt upper end and a flat bottom, with a height of 0.6~1.3 cm and a diameter of 0.5~1.2 cm. The surface is grayish-green or light brown, densely covered with grayish-white or grayish-green short hairs, the persistent calyx is brown, 5-lobed, the apex is mostly broken, there are many remaining filaments on the top, and there are stalk marks or even thin stalks on the bottom. The drupe is about half-moon-shaped, the back is raised, and the ventral surface has protruding ridge lines; The surface is brown, with gray-white hairs on the back and apex, and reticular concave lines on the ventral surface and both sides. The herb is light, its texture is hard, it contains one brown seed. The herb has a delicate fragrance, it tastes slightly sour and puckery. The herb of better grade is complete, full, yellow-green, sour taste.

 Rubus chingii Hu.:flowering plant Main value: There are many pieces of research on medicinal properties, and there are a few pieces of research on health foods and other researches, especially about the preservation and utilization of processing. The Rubus genus is full of treasure. The bark contains tannins, fibers, leaves can be used for tea, sweeteners, medicinal, tannins. The flower is an important source of honey plants, fruit is edible, medicinal, processed beverages, jams, brewing, sugar, vinegar, juice, etc. supplied at home and abroad. Seeds can be used medicinally, pressed oil, roots can be medicinal, root bark containing tannins, the whole plant can be used as a medicine, green ornamental trees and so on. The folks use their fruit brew wine, make jams, squeeze juice to prepare drinks.

 Medicinal value: The Rubus chingii Hu., or Palmleaf Raspberry is the only one of 194 species of Raspberry that was selected and defined as the official botanical origin in the official herbal classics.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.antioxidant:The Raspberry or Fructus Rubi contains numerous catechins and flavonoids, has a strong antioxidant capacity, can clear free radicals in the body, strengthen blood vessels, prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer; ②.antibacterial:water decoction has an antibacterial effect, has an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus, Vibrio cholerae; ③.estrogenlike effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Tonifying the kidney, supporting Yang, astringent and controlling nocturnal emission, nourishing the liver, improve eyesight (improving acuity of vision). It is indicated for spermatorrhea (nocturnal emission), night emission, asynodia (impotentia, sexual impotence), prospermia (premature ejaculation, ejaculatio praecox), anischuria (enuresis, bedwetting), frequent urination, cold of uterus and infertility, clear and dilute morbid leukorrhea, consumption (consumptive disease), dim eyesight, dim-sighted (blurred vision), premature greying bear and hair, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Rubi (Fù Pén Zi): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Rubi (Fù Pén Zi)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~2 qian (about 4.5~6 grams);infusing in wine, prepare an ointment, or prepare to pill, powder; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams;or prepared to pill, powder, or infusing in wine, or prepare an ointment.

(2).Rubus coreanus Miq.

 Rubus coreanus Miq.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Rubus coreanus Miq., is a plant of the Rosaceae family (rose family) Rubus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Rubus coreanus Miq.", or "Cha Tian Pao". Shrubs, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters tall; branches are thick, reddish-brown, covered with white powder, with suberect or hook-shaped flat prickles. Leaves are usually 5, 3 thin, ovate, ovate-ovate or broadly ovate, long 2~8 cm, width 2~5 cm, apex is pointed, base is cuneate to suborbicular, glabrous above or leaves are pubescent only along veins, sparsely pilose below or pubescent only along leaf veins, margins are irregularly serrulate or crenulate-sawn, distal tips are sometimes 3-lobed, petiole is 2~5 cm, the primary petiole is 1~2 cm long, lateral leaflets are subsessile, leafy pubescent and sparsely hooked; small priests; stipules are linear-lanceolate, villous.

  The corymbs grow at the apical side of the lateral branches, with several to 30-flowered flowers, and the pedicels and pedicels are gray pubescent; pedicels are 5~10 mm long; bracts are linear, pubescent; flower diameter is 7~10 mm, calyx outside is grayish pubescent; sepals are long ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 4~6 mm long, apex is acuminate, margin is pilose, when flowering, fruit when reflexed; petals are obovate, pale red to dark red, nearly as long as or slightly shorter than sepals; stamens are shorter or nearly as long as petals, flower is ribbon pink; pistil are numerous; styles are glabrous, ovary is sparsely pubescent.

 Fruit is nearly spherical, 5~8 mm in diameter, dark red to purple-black, glabrous or subglabrous; kernel is wrinkled. It is flowering from April to June, fruiting from June to August.

 Rubus coreanus Miq.:fruiting plant The hairs under the leaves of this species are changed greatly, often on the same plant or on the same shoots, most of the leaves below the leaves are glabrous or only pilose along the veins, but fewer leaves are still densely covered with short downs, this is the case with specimens in peak mountain areas.

 Ecological environment: The Rubus coreanus Miq., grows on hillside shrubs or valleys, rivers, and roadsides that are 100~1,700 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, northwest, southwest of China.
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