Introduction of Qing Guo:Chinese White Olive or Fructus Canarii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese White Olive, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Canarium album Raeusch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Chinese White Olive, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Canarii(Chinese White Olive).

Fructus Canarii:dried herb Pin Yin Name: Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn.
 English Name: Chinese White Olive.
 Latin Name: Fructus Canarii.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet, sour, astringent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Canarii is the dried ripe fruit of Canarium album Raeusch.(family Burseraceae), used for relieving sore throat and hoarseness in phonation. It is commonly known as Fructus Canarli, Chinese White Olive, Qīnɡ Guǒ.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Canarii(Chinese White Olive) as the dried ripe fruit of (1).Canarium album Raeusch.(Canarium Linn. Genus, Burseraceae Kunth family, Sapindales order.). This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Canarium album Raeusch.

 Canarium album Raeusch.:fruiting tree Botanical description: Trees, 10~25(~35) meters tall, up to 150 cm DBH. Branchlets 5~6 mm thick, young tomentose yellow-brown, soon glabrous; There are columnar vascular bundles around the medulla, and a few vascular bundles are sparse in the center. Stipules, present only when buds, on branches near the base of the petiole. Leaflet 3-6 pairs, papery to leathery, lanceolate or elliptic (to ovate), 6~14 cm long, 2~5.5 cm wide, glabrous or setae sprouting on abaxially veins, abaxially with very small verrucous projections; Apex acuminate to abruptly narrow acuminate, apex ca. 2 cm long, obtuse; Base cuneate to rounded, oblique, entire; Lateral veins 12~16 pairs, midrib well-developed.

  Inflorescences axillary, microtomentose to glabrous; Male inflorescences thyrse, 15~30 cm long, many flowers; Female inflorescence racemose, 3~6 cm long, with flowers below 12. Flowers sparsely tomentose to glabrous, male flowers 5.5~8 mm, female flowers ca. 7 mm; Calyx 2.5~3 mm long, 3-shallow-toothed on male flowers, subtruncated on female flowers; Stamens 6, glabrous, filaments more than 1/2 connate (several full-lengths in female flowers); Disk globose to cylindrical in male flower, 1~1.5 mm tall, micro6 lobed, central cavity or not, upper part with a few setae; Female flowers medium annular, slightly 3-dentate, 1 mm tall, thick fleshy, inwardly sparsely pilose. Pistil densely pubescent; Small or absent in male flowers.

 Canarium album Raeusch.:fruiting branch Fruit inflorescence 1.5~15 cm long, with 1-6 fruits. Fruit calyx flat, 0.5 cm in diameter, calyx teeth curvaceous. The shape of fruit is ovoid to fusiform, nearly circular in cross-section, 2.5~3.5 cm long, glabrous, yellowish-green when ripe; Pericarp thick, dry wrinkle; Fruit pit acuminate, cross-section circle to hexagon, have shallow groove between blunt rib Angle and nucleate lid, nucleate lid has slightly raised middle rib, outside shallow wavy; The nuclear cover is 1.5~3 mm thick. Seeds 1~2, sterile cells slightly degenerate. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting in October, fruit ripe in December.

 Ecological environment: The tree is native to southern China, it is planted in Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, it also distributes in the upper and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. The tree is also planted in the Malay peninsula. The tree also grows in Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar, and Malaysia.

 Canarium album Raeusch.:green fruits It is wild in gullies and mountain slopes below 1300 meters above sea level or cultivated in gardens and villages. Wild olives in China are found in Hainan, Taiwan, and Xichang of Sichuan.

 Olives like warm, the growth period needs appropriate high temperature to grow vigorously, good results, the annual average temperature above 20 ℃, winter without severe frost and frost damage is the most suitable for its growth, winter can bear a short time of minus 3 ℃ low temperature, but the temperature drops to below 4 ℃ will occur serious freezing damage. Rainfall can grow normally in areas of 1200~1400 mm. Wide adaptability to the soil, river Banks, hills and mountains, red and yellow soil, gravel soil can be cultivated, as long as the soil deep, good drainage can grow well.

 Growth characteristics: The Canarium album prefers a high temperature and wet climate, and the average temperature is 20~22 ℃. Not resistant to cold, vulnerable to frost damage in serious frost areas. It is better to grow in a deep soil layer, loose and fertile, rich in humus sandy soil. The sapling stage can be intercropped with legumes.

 Characters of herbs: The fruit is spindle-shaped, blunt at both ends, 2.5~4 cm long and 1~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is brown or dark brown with irregular deep wrinkles. The pulp is thick, grayish brown or brown. The core (endocarp) is spindle-shaped, dark red-brown, with three longitudinal edges on the surface, with two curved grooves. The texture of the herb is hard, after being broken, it is divided into three chambers, each with one seed. The exocarp is yellow, often clinging to the endocarp, the endocarp is reddish brown, membranous, the endosperm is extremely thin, and there are 2 cotyledons. The herb has no odor, the pulp tastes puckery, slightly sweet after long chewing. The herb which is big, firm, thick, tastes puckery then sweet, is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.excite the salivary glands and help digestion; ②.protective effects on hepatocyte toxicity in mice.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear the lung, relieve sore throat, produce saliva and slake thirst, detoxification. It is indicated for swelling and pain in the throat, dysphoria, cough and vomiting blood, cough with phlegm blood, bacillus dysentery, epilepsy, summer heat and dysphoria, drunkenness, detoxify puffer fish poison and alcohol poison, fish and crab poisoning, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Canarii(Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Canarii(Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder, extract juice or prepare to paste. Externally:charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick;③.Internally:water decoction, 6~12 grams,or prepare to paste, or prepare to pill. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply, or mixed with oil and apply stick.

Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.
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