Introduction of Qing Guo:Chinese White Olive or Fructus Canarii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese White Olive, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Chinese White Olive, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Canarii(Chinese White Olive).

dried herb fruit berries of Fructus Canarii Pin Yin Name: Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn.
 English Name: Chinese White Olive.
 Latin Name: Fructus Canarii.
 Property and flavor: neutral in nature, sweet, sour, astringent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Canarii is the dried ripe fruit of Canarium album Raeusch., used for relieving sore throat and hoarseness in phonation. It is commonly known as Fructus Canarli, Chinese White Olive, Qīnɡ Guǒ.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Canarii (Chinese White Olive) as the dried ripe fruit of (1).Canarium album Raeusch.(Canarium Linn. Genus, Burseraceae Kunth family, Sapindales order.). This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Canarium album Raeusch.

 fruiting tree of Canarium album Raeusch with several green fruits Botanical description: Canarium album Raeusch is also known as Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch., or Pimela alba Lour., is commonly known as Gǎn Lǎn. An evergreen tree, the tree grows up to 10~20 meters tall or up to 35 meters tall, and its DBH (diameter at breast height) is up to 150 cm. It has adhesive resin with fragrance. The bark is pale gray and smooth; branchlets (twigs), petiole, and rhachis are covered with very short pubescence, with lenticels. Imparipinnate compound leaves are alternate, 15~30 cm long; 11~15 lobules (leaflets), oblong-lanceolate, 6~15 cm long, 2.5~5 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is oblique, entire, glabrate, retiform veins are conspicuous on both sides, the under surface has small dens on the retiform veins, slightly coarse.

 Panicles are apical or axillary, the same length as leaves or slightly shorter; the calyx is cyathiform (cotyloid), shallowly 3-lobed, rarely 5-lobed; 3~5 flower petals, white, fragrant, about 2 times the length of the calyx; 6 stamens, insert on the outside of circinal (ringlike) floral disc; 1 pistil, the ovary is superior.

 fruiting branches of Canarium album Raeusch with many green fruits hanging on it Drupes (drupe fruits) are oval (egg-shaped), about 3 cm long, yellowish green at the initial stage, later turns yellowish-white, and both tips are sharply pointed. Its flowering period is from May to July, and the fruiting period is from August to October, fruits mature in December.

 Ecological environment: The tree grows in shaw (holt or miscellaneous wood forest) at lower altitude levels, and it is also cultivated. The tree is native to southern China, and it is planted in the Zhujiang River area, in the southwest, Taiwan, and it is also distributed in the upper and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and other areas of China. The tree is also planted in the Malay peninsula. The tree also grows in Thailand and other areas of southeast Asia.

 many green fruit berries of Canarium album Raeusch are piled together with a few leaves It is wild in gullies and on mountain slopes below 1,300 meters above sea level, or cultivated in gardens and villages. Wild olives in China are found in Hainan, Taiwan, and Xichang of Sichuan.

 Growth characteristics: Canarium album prefers a high temperature and higher humid climate, and the average temperature most suitable for its growth is 20~22 °C (Celsius, or 68~71.6 degrees Fahrenheit). It is not resistant to cold, vulnerable to frost damage in serious frost areas. It is better to grow in a field with deep soil layers, loose and fertile, humus-rich sandy soil. In the sapling stage, it can be intercropped with legumes.

 Olives like a warm climate, and the growth period needs an appropriate high temperature to grow vigorously, the annual average temperature is above 20 °C (Celsius, or 68 degrees Fahrenheit), and winter without severe frost and frost damage is the most suitable for its growth, in winter it can bear a short time of -3 °C (Celsius, or 37.4 degrees Fahrenheit) low temperature, but when the temperature drops to below 4 °C (Celsius, or 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit) it will occur serious freezing damage. It can grow normally in areas with annual precipitation of 1,200~1,400 mm. The tree has a wide adaptability to the soil, river banks, hills, and mountains, and it can be cultivated in red and yellow soil, and gravel soil, as long as the soil is deep with good drainage.

 Characters of herbs: The fruit is fusiform (spindle-shaped), and both tips are blunt pointed, 2.5~4 cm long, and 1~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is brown or dark brown, with irregular deep wrinkles. The pulp is thick, taupe brown (grayish brown) or tan (chocolate brown). The core (endocarp) is fusiform (spindle-shaped), dark reddish brown, with three longitudinal edges on the surface, and between edges, there are two curved grooves. The texture of the herb is firm and hard, after being broken, its inside is divided into three cells (loculi), and each cell contains one seed. The exocarp is yellow, often clinging to the endocarp, the endocarp is reddish brown and membranous, the endosperm is extremely thin, and there are 2 cotyledons. The herb has no odor, the pulp tastes puckery, and slightly sweet after long chewing. The herb of a better grade is big, firm, thick fruit pulp, tastes puckery then sweet.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.excite the salivary glands and help digestion; ②.protective effects on hepatocyte toxicity in mice.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear the lung, relieve sore throat, produce saliva and slake thirst, detoxification. It is indicated for swelling and pain in the throat, dysphoria, cough and vomiting blood, cough with phlegm blood, bacillus dysentery, epilepsy, summer heat and dysphoria, drunkenness, detoxify puffer fish poison and alcohol poison, fish and crab poisoning, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Canarii (Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Canarii (Qīnɡ Guǒ, Gǎn Lǎn)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:4.5~9 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder, extract juice or prepare to paste. Externally:charred herb with its property retained, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 6~12 grams,or prepare to paste, or prepare to pill. Externally:proper amount, prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply, or mixed with oil and apply stick.




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