Introduction of Jin Yin Hua:Honeysuckle Flower or Flos Lonicerae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Honeysuckle Flower, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its herbal classic book defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Lonicera japonica Thunb., and other three usable botanical sources, ②.Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., ③.Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC., ④.Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these four plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these four plant species, the features of the herb Honeysuckle Flower, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Flos Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Flower).

Honeysuckle Flower:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Jīn Yín Huā.
 English Name: Honeysuckle Flower.
 Latin Name: Flos Lonicerae.
 Property and flavor: cold, sweet.

 Brief introduction: The herb Flos Lonicerae is the dried flower-bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC., or Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng., used to clear heat, counteract toxins, and disperse wind-heat for treating (1).boils, sores and abscesses, (2).wind-heat afflictions and warm diseases at the early stage, and (3).toxic-heat dysentery.The herb is commonly known as Flos Lonicerae, Honeysuckle Flower, Jīn Yín Huā.

 Botanical source: The herb Flos Lonicerae (Honeysuckle Flower) is the dried flower-bud of Lonicera japonica Thunb., it is the herbal classic book defined botanical source, other three usable botanical sources defined in other herbal classics are: Lonicera hypoglauca Miq., Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC. or Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng., they are plants of the Lonicera L. genus, the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) of the Dipsacales order. These four commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Lonicera japonica Thunb.


 Lonicera japonica Thunb.:flower Botanical description: Lonicera japonica Thunb is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as Ren Dong. A perennial semi-evergreen twining woody vine, it grows up to 9 meters. The stem is hollow, and many-branched, young branches are densely pubescent and covered with glandular hairs. Leaves are opposite; petioles are 4~10 cm, densely pubescent; leaves are chartaceous (papery), leaf blades are oval (egg-shaped), oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5~8 cm long, 1~5.5 cm wide, the apex is mucronate, acuminate or obtuse, the base is rounded or subcordate, entire, both surfaces and edges are pubescent.

 Lonicera japonica Thunb.:flowering plant Flowers are in pairs and axillary, pedicel is densely covered with pubescence and glandular hairs; peduncle is solitary and usually grows in leaf axils on the upper part of branchlets, equal length as petiole or slightly shorter, peduncle that grow on the lower part is 2~4 cm long, densely covered with pubescence and glandular hairs; 2 flower bracts, foliate (leaf-like), broad-ovate or elliptic, about 3.5 mm long, piliferous or glabrate; bracteoles are about 1 mm long, covered with short hairs and glandular hairs; the calyx is short and small, calyx tube is about 2 mm long, glabrous, 5-toothed, lobes are ovate-triangular or long triangular, apex is pointed, outside and the margin are densely covered with hairs; corolla is labiate, 3~5 cm long, upper lip is 4-lobed, corolla tube is thin and long, outside is covered with short hairs and glandular hairs, 4 lobes of upper lip are blunt at apex, lower lip is banded (strip shaped) and retroflexed, flowers are white at the initial stage, turns golden yellow in 2–3 days; 5 stamens, insert in corolla inner surface near to tube opening, stretching beyond the corolla; 1 pistil, ovary is inferior, style is slender, stretching out.

 Lonicera japonica Thunb.:flowers Berries are in globular shape, 6~7 mm in diameter, picine (blue black) at maturity, glossy. Its flowering period is from April to July, and the fruiting period is from June to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in open forests on hillsides or mountain slopes, bushes, villages, roadsides, and so on, it is also cultivated. The plant is distributed in the eastern, central and south, southwest areas, and northwest and north areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: Lonicera japonica prefers a mild and humid climate and sufficient sunshine, it is tolerant to coldness, drought, and waterlogging, temperatures suitable for growth are 20~30 °C (Celsius, or 68~86 degrees Fahrenheit), its soil requirements are not strict, tolerant to saline and alkaline. But it is better to choose a field with deep soil layers and loose humus soil for cultivation.

 Honeysuckle Flower:herb photo Characters of herbs: The flower bud is wooden hammer shape, the upper part is thick, the lower part is thin, slightly curved, 1.3~5.5 cm long, the upper part is 2~3 mm in diameter, and the lower part is about 1.5 mm in diameter. The surface is primrose yellow (pale yellow) or yellowish brown, the color turns dark after long storage, densely covered with coarse hairs or long glandular hairs; the calyx is thin and small, and green, calyx tube is round-likely roundness, about 1 mm long, glabrous, apex is 5-lobed, calyx teeth are ovate-triangular, piliferous; corolla is fistuliform (tubulose), the upper part is slightly split to bilabiate shape, sometimes blooming flowers are visible; 5 stamens, attached to hypanthium wall, yellow; 1 pistil, has a thin and long style, the ovary is glabrous. The herb has a faint scent, and it tastes sweet and slightly bitter.

 The herb of a better grade has large buds, in buds but not flowering, yellowish-white, moistening and plump, and has a strong fragrance.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antibacterial effect: in vitro experiment showed the herb has an inhibitory effect on a variety of bacteria (typhoid bacillus, Bacillus paratyphosus, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus, streptococcus, Diplococcus pneumoniae, meningococcus, etc.). ②.Other effects: lower the blood cholesterol level, reduce the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxification, cool wind-heat. It is indicated for carbuncle swelling boils, carbuncle, and sores, pharyngitis(inflammation of the fauces and pharynx), pyogenic infections, erysipelas, scrofula, hemorrhoids, pyretic bloody dysentery, wind-heat type fever, fever of warm disease, a variety of infectious diseases.

 Administration of Flos Lonicerae (Jīn Yín Huā): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Flos Lonicerae (Jīn Yín Huā)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:6~15 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder. Externally:prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 10~20 grams, or prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick.

(2).Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC.


 Lonicera confusa Sweet DC.:flowering plant Botanical description: Lonicera confusa (Sweet) DC is also known as Lonicera multiflora Champ.(Lonicera multiflora Champion ex Bentham), Lonicera telfeirii Hook.et Arn., Nintooa confusa Sweet., is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as Hua Nan Ren Dong, or Ren Dong of South China, Da Jin Yin Hua (Big Honeysuckle Flower), Shan Jin Yin Hua (Mountain Honeysuckle Flower), Tu Yin Hua (Native Honeysuckle Flower), Zuo Zhuan Teng (Left Swirling Vine). A semi-evergreen vine; young twigs, petiole, peduncle, flower bracts, bracteole, and hypanthium (calyx tube) are all densely covered with grayish yellow curly fluff, also with sparse tiny glandular hairs; branchlets (twigs) are pale reddish brown or nearly brown, leaves are chartaceous (papery), oval (egg-shaped) to ovate rectangular-circular, 3~6 cm or 7 cm long, apex is pointed or slightly obtuse and has small short pointed tip, base is circular, truncate or cordate, both sides have short coarse hairs when young, the upper surface turns glabrous when old; petioles are 5~10 mm long.

 Flowers have fragrance, double flowers grow axillary on branchlets or laterally on top of short branches and accumulate to short racemes with 2~4 nodes, with conspicuous involucral bracts; peduncles are 2~8 mm long; flower bracts are lanceolate, 1~2 mm long; bracteoles are ovate or oval (egg-shaped), about 1 mm long, apex is obtuse, with marginal seta (tricholoma); calyx tube is 1.5~2 mm long, covered with short coarse hairs; calyx teeth are lanceolate or ovate-triangular, 1 mm long, outside is densely pubescent; corolla is white, turns yellowish later, 3.2~5 cm long, labiated, calyx tube is straight or sometimes slightly curved, out surface is covered with more or less unfolded anatropous rough hairs and long or short glandular hairs, inner surface has pilose, labellum is slightly shorter than calyx tube; stamens and styles both extending beyond the calyx, slightly longer than the labellum, filaments are glabrous.

 Fruits are black, elliptic or orbicular, 6~10 mm long. Its flowering period is from April to May, and sometimes flowering the second time from September to October, fruit is ripening in October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows on hills, mountain slopes, shaw (holt or miscellaneous wood forest) and bushes, plains and weald, roadsides or river banks. The plant is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang river area and Hainan Island of China.

 Characters of herbs: The flower bud is 1.3~5 cm long, and 0.5~2 mm in diameter, reddish brown or taupe brown, and covered with anatropous short rough hairs, the calyx teeth and calyx tube are densely covered with ash gray (grayish-white) or primrose yellow (pale yellow) hairs, and the ovary is piliferous. The herb of a better grade has large buds, in buds but not flowering, yellowish-white, moistening and plump, has a strong fragrance.

(3).Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.


 Lonicera hypoglauca Miq.:flowering plant Botanical description: Lonicera hypoglauca Miq is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as Gu Xian Ren Dong, Xian Ye Ren Dong, Hong Xian Ren Dong, Dun Xian Ren Dong. A deciduous vine; young branchlets, petioles, and midribs of both leaf surfaces and peduncle are all densely flavotestaceous (fawn color) pubescent, sometimes covered with rough hairs. Leaves are chartaceous (papery), oval (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong, 6~9 cm long or up to 11.5 cm long, the base is orbicular or cordate, sometimes pinkish green at the lower part, sessile, or has very short stalk, yellow to orange-red mushroom-shaped gland; petioles are 0.5~1.2 cm long.

 Double flowers are solitary, or many flowers grow on lateral short branches, or accumulate into raceme on the tip of the branchlets, the peduncle is shorter than the petiole or sometimes longer; bracts are bar-shaped lanceolate, almost equal length as the calyx tube, with rough hairs and marginal seta (tricholoma) on the outside; bracteoles are ovoid or oval (egg-shaped), rarely ovate-lanceolate, about 1/3 length of the calyx tube, with marginal seta (tricholoma); calyx tube is glabrous or piliferous, calyx teeth are triangular-lanceolate, about 1/2-2/3 length of the calyx tube, with marginal seta (tricholoma); corolla is white, sometimes with pale blush, turn yellow later, 3.5~4 cm long, labiated, corolla tube is slightly longer than labellum, outside is sparsely covered with anatropous tiny hairs, often glands with a short stalk or sessile; stamen and style slightly stretching outside, glabrous.

 Mature fruit is black, orbicular, sometimes is pruinose (has white powder), about 7~8 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from April to May or June, and the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in bushes or open forests, in areas at an altitude of 200~700~1,500 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest, Taiwan and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: Flower buds are 1~5 cm long, 0.8~2 mm in diameter, yellowish-brown or brown; the calyx tube is glabrous, the calyx teeth are piliferous, the corolla is glabrous outside, or the flora tube has a few anatropous tiny appressed hairs, no glandular hairs. The herb of a better grade has large buds, in buds but not flowering, yellowish-white, moistening and plump, and has a strong fragrance.

(4).Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng.


 Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng.:flowering plant Botanical description: Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S.C. Cheng is a plant of the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) and Lonicera genus, it is commonly known as Huang He Mao Ren Dong, or Yellow Brown Hair Lonicera, vines; young branchlets, petioles, undersurface of leaf, peduncle, flower bracts, bracteole, and calyx teeth are all densely covered with stretching or bending brown panniform rough hairs, young twigs and both surfaces of leaves are covered with scattered orange-red short glandular hairs. Winter buds have 4 pairs of scales. Leaves are chartaceous (papery), ovate rectangular-circular to rectangular-circular lanceolate, 3~8 cm long or up to 11 cm long, the apex is acuminate, the base is orbicular, shallowly cordate, or subtruncate, sparsely strigose grow on the upper surface, midrib hair is denser; petioles are 5~7 mm long.

 Double flowers arrange to axillary or apical short raceme, peduncles are up to 1 cm; peduncle is about 2 mm long, lower support with 1 pair of small stipels; bracts are subulate, 5~7 mm long; bracteoles are oval (egg-shaped) to bar-shaped lanceolate, about 1/2 length of the calyx tube or slightly longer; calyx tube is obovate-elliptic, about 2 mm long, glabrous, calyx teeth are bar-shaped lanceolate, 2~3 mm long; corolla is white at the initial stage and turns yellow later, 3~3.5 cm long, labiated, flora tube is slightly shorter than labellum, outside is sparsely covered with tawny anatropous appressed hair and expanded short glandular hairs, lobes of the upper lip are oblong, about 8 mm long, the lower lip is about 1.8 cm long; the stamen and style are both higher than corolla, glabrous; style is orbicular, about 1 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in the shrubbery or woods beside rocks on the hillside at altitudes of 850~1,300 meters above sea level. The plant is mainly distributed in the upper reaches of the Zhujiang river, southwest areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The flower bud is about 3.5 cm long, brown or flavovirens (yellowish-green), the calyx tube is brown or celadon (sage green), the calyx teeth are piliferous, and the corolla is covered with tawny anatropous short rough hairs. The herb of a better grade has large buds, in buds but not flowering, yellowish-white, moistening and plump, has a strong fragrance.
 
Caulis Lonicerae(Honeysuckle Stem).

 Honeysuckle Stem:herb photo Brief Introduction: The Herb Caulis Lonicerae is the dried stem and branch of Lonicera japonica Thunb.(family Caprifoliaceae), with actions similar to those of honeysuckle flower, but more frequently used to clear heat from the meridians and collaterals for treating acute rheumatic arthritis.

 ✵The herb Caulis Lonicerae (Honeysuckle Stem) is the dried stem and branch of Lonicera japonica Thunb., it is a plant of the Lonicera L. genus, the Caprifoliaceae family (honeysuckle family) of the Dipsacales order.
 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Jin Yin Hua:Honeysuckle Flower or Flos Lonicerae.

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