Introduction of She Gan:Blackberrylily Rhizome or Rhizoma Belamcandae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Blackberrylily Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Blackberrylily Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Rhizoma Belamcandae(Blackberrylily Rhizome).

dried bright yellowish slices of Blackberrylily Rhizome are piled together Pin Yin Name: Shè Gān.
 English Name: Blackberrylily Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Belamcandae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Belamcandae is the dried rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC., used in the relief of painful swelling of the throat, cough, and dyspnea with profuse expectoration. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Belamcandae, Blackberrylily Rhizome, Shè Gān.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Belamcandae (Blackberrylily Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1).Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. (Belamcanda Adans genus, Iridaceae family, Liliflorae order.). This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.

 flowering plants of Belamcanda chinensis DC. with three orange-colored flowers Botanical description: Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC is commonly known as Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redouté, Ixia chinensis L., Blackberrylily, Shè Gān. A perennial herb. The rhizome is thick and strong, decumbent, canary-yellow (bright yellow), irregular tuberous, with many thin and long fibrous roots inserting on it. The stem is upright, 50~150 cm high, and farctate, and leaves grow on the lower part. Leaves are alternate, flat, wide ensiform (wide sword-shaped), fold, embedded with each other, arranged in two columns, 20~60 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is amplexicaular (stem-clasping), entire, green and glaucous (covered with white powder); several leaf veins, parallel.

 a colorful drawing of Belamcanda chinensis DC.,with rhizomes,green leaves,stem and orange-colored flower petals,seeds Cymes are corymbose and terminal, branches are bifurcated, several flowers insert on the tip of the branch; pedicels and base of branches all have membraneous bracts; bracts are lanceolate or narrowly ovate; 6 tepals (perianth lobes), arranged in 2 whorls, tepals in out whorl are obovate or oblong, about 2.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, 3 tepals in the inner whorl are slightly smaller, obovate or oblong oval, about 2~2.5 cm long, 1 cm wide, saffron yellow (orange), has dull red (dirty red) spots; 3 stamens, adnate on the base of out tepals, anther grows outward; 1 pistil, the ovary is inferior, 3-loculed, axile placenta, stigma is shallowly 3-lobed.

 Capsularfruit is obovate or oblong oval, 2~4 cm long, with 3 strigation (longitudinal ridges), loculicidal at maturity, and fruit valves are excurved (curve outward). Many seeds, orbicular, murrey (black purple), glossy, about 5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, and the fruiting period is from July to September.

 flowering plants of Belamcanda chinensis DC. with orange-colored flowers Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides and mountain slopes, grassland, field open space, and shaw (holt or miscellaneous wood forest) edge, mostly in the lower elevation of the place, but in the southwest mountains, it also grows at an area with an elevation of 2,000~2,200 meters above sea level. The plant is often cultivated. The plant is distributed in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world, its distribution center is in Southern Africa and tropical America. The plant is distributed in the Yellow River area and Yangtze River area of China. It also grows in other regions of East Asia and Siberia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Belamcanda chinensis prefers a warm and dry climate, it is tolerant to cold and drought. It is advisable to choose a field with sufficient sunshine, deep soil layers, and loose and fertile, sandy loam with good drainage for cultivation. Neutral loam or slightly alkaline soil is suitable for cultivation, but should avoid low-lying land and saline-alkali land.

 dried bright yellow herb slices of Blackberrylily Rhizome Characters of herbs: The rhizome of the herb is irregularly nodular and tuberous, branched, 3~10 cm long, and 1~2 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish brown, somber brown (dark brown), or black brown, shriveled and not flat, with conspicuous nodes and longitudinal striation. There are disc shaped concave stem marks on the upper part, and sometimes there are residual stem bases; and there are residual radicula and root marks on both sides of the lower part. The texture of the herb is hard, the fracture surface is yellow, granular. The herb has a slight odor, and it tastes bitter and slightly pungent. The herb of a better grade is thick, the texture of the herb is hard, and the fracture surface is yellow.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect; ②.antiviral effect; ③.other effects:obvious diuretic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, eliminate phlegm, relieve sore throat, eliminate stasis and eliminating stagnation. It is indicated for toxic heat phlegm fire accumulation, sore throats swelling, sputum salivary accumulation, cough and asthma, scrofula and tuberculosis, malarial nodule and abdominal mass, carbuncle swollen sores poison, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Belamcandae (Shè Gān): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Belamcandae (Shè Gān)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 0.8~1.5 qian (about 2.4~4.5 grams), prepare to powder, or extract juice from fresh herb.Externally:prepare to finely ground herb powder and blow to the throat, or apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder, or extract juice from fresh herb.Externally:proper amount,or prepare to ground herb powder and blow to the throat, or mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions:should avoid using the herb during pregnancy.




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