Introduction of She Gan:Blackberrylily Rhizome or Rhizoma Belamcandae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Counteracting Toxins: an agent or substance herbs that counteracts heat toxins or fire toxins, mainly indicated in the treatment of boils, sores, abscess, erysipelas, epidemic infectious diseases, mumps, dysentery, insect or snake bite, and burns.

 
Rhizoma Belamcandae(Blackberrylily Rhizome).

Blackberrylily Rhizome Pin Yin Name: Shè Gān.
 English Name: Blackberrylily Rhizome.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Belamcandae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Belamcandae is the dried rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis(L.)DC.(family Iridaceae), used in the relief of painful swelling of the throat, cough, and dyspnea with profuse expectoration. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Belamcandae, Blackberrylily Rhizome, Shè Gān.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Belamcandae(Blackberrylily Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of (1).Belamcanda chinensis(L.)DC.(Belamcanda Adans genus, Iridaceae family, Liliflorae order.). This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Belamcanda chinensis DC. (1).Belamcanda chinensis(L.)DC.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redouté, Blackberrylily, Shè Gān. Leaves alternate, nested, sword-shaped, 20~60 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, basally sheath clasping, apically acuminate, without midrib.

 Inflorescences terminal, branched forklike, apex of each branch clustered with several flowers; Pedicels slender, ca. 1.5 cm long; Pedicels and inflorescence branches are covered with membranous bracts, bracts lanceolate or ovoid; Flowers orange-red, scattered purple-brown spots, diameter 4~5 cm; Perianth lobes arranged in 6, 2 rounds, outer perianth lobes obovate or oblong, ca. 2.5 cm long, ca. 1 cm wide, apex obtuse or concave, base cuneate, inner wheel slightly shorter and narrower than outer perianth lobes; 3 stamens, 1.8~2 cm long, inserted at base of outer perianth lobes, anthers striate, extraneous dehiscent, filaments subcylindrical, base slightly flat and wide; Style slightly flattened upper, apex 3-lobed, margin of lobes slightly curving outwardly, ovary subovaries, obovate, 3-locules, axillary placenta, ovules numerous.

 Belamcanda chinensis DC. Capsule obovate or oblong, yellowish-green, 2.5~3 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter, apical without beak, often survived withering perianth, when mature loculus dehiscent, fruit petals outwardly, central with upright fruit axis; Seeds globose, dark purple, glossy, ca. 5 mm in diameter, borne on fruiting axis. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in forest margin or hillside grassland, mostly in the lower elevation of the place, but in the southwest mountains, it also grows at an area with an elevation of 2,000~2,200 meters above sea level. It prefers to warm and sunny, resistant to drought and cold, the soil requirements are not strict, it can be planted on hillside dry land, fertile and loose soil. Sandy loam with high terrain and good drainage is preferred. Neutral loam or slightly alkaline soil is suitable, avoid low-lying land and saline-alkali land. The plant distributes in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of the world, its distribution center is in southern Africa and tropical America. The plant distributes in the Yellow River area and Yangtze River area of China. It also grows in East Asia and Siberia.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Belamcanda chinensis prefers a warm and dry climate, cold, drought resistance. It is advisable to choose the sandy soil with abundant sunshine, deep soil layer, loose and fertile, and good drainage.

 Belamcanda chinensis DC. Characters of herbs: Rhizome irregularly nodular, branched, 3~10 cm long, 1~2 cm in diameter. Surface yellow-brown, dark brown or black-brown, wrinkled uneven, there are obvious links and longitudinal lines. There are disc-shaped pits on the stem, sometimes residual stem base; There are residual fine roots and root marks below and on both sides. Hard, broken surface color yellow, granular. Slight smell, bitter taste, slightly pungent. The one thick, hard, broken complexion yellow is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect, ②. Antiviral effect, ③. Other effects:The irisin contained in this product has obvious diuretic effect when subcutaneously injected into rabbits at 25 mg/kg.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, eliminate phlegm, relieve sore throat, eliminate stasis and eliminating stagnation. It is indicated for toxic heat phlegm fire accumulation, sore throats swelling, sputum salivary accumulation, cough and asthma, scrofula and tuberculosis, malarial nodule and abdominal mass, carbuncle swollen sores poison, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma Belamcandae(Shè Gān): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Belamcandae(Shè Gān)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 0.8~1.5 qian(about 2.4~4.5 grams),prepare to powder, or extract juice from fresh herb.Externally:grinded into fine powder and blow to the throat, or apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder, or extract juice from fresh herb.Externally:proper amount,or grinded into powder and blow to the throat, or mashed and apply stick(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of She Gan:Blackberrylily Rhizome or Rhizoma Belamcandae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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