Introduction of Huang Bo:Amur Cork-tree or Cortex Phellodendri.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

Cortex Phellodendri(Amur Cork-tree).

Amur Cork-tree:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Bò.
 English Name: Amur Cork-tree.
 Latin Name: Cortex Phellodendri.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Cortex Phellodendri is the dried bark of Chinese corktree, Phellodendron chinense Schneid. Or Amur Corktree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr.(Phellodendron Rupr genus, family Rutaceae, Rutales order), used (1).to clear heat and dry dampness in cases of acute dysentery, jaundice, morbid leukorrhea, and heat stranguria, (2).to purge fire and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores and ulcers, and (3).to relieve fever in cases of Yin deficiency with night sweats. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Phellodendri, Amur Cork-tree, Huánɡ Bò.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Cortex Phellodendri(Huang Bo) as the dry cortex or tree bark of the Rutaceae family plant species (1). Phellodendron chinense Schneid., or (2). Phellodendron amurense Rupr. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Phellodendron chinense Schneid.

 Phellodendron chinense Schneid.:tree Botanical description: The Phellodendron chinense Schneid., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Phellodendron Rupr. Genus, it is commonly known as "Phellodendron chinense", or "Huáng Pí Shù". Deciduous trees, 10~12 meters tall. Bark brown appearance, visible lip-shaped leather hole, thin outer cork. Odd pinnate compound leaves opposite; 7~15 Lobules, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, 9~15 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, apex long acuminate, base-wide wedge or circular, asymmetrical, nearly entire, rust-colored pubescence on upper-middle veins, rust-colored long pubescence below dense, leaflet thick papery below. Flowers unisexual, dioecious; Inflorescence terminal conical, rachis densely puberulent. Flowers purple; Male flowers have 5~6 stamens, longer than petals, degenerate pistil diamond-shaped; Female flowers have 5~6 degenerated stamens, ovary upper, short stalks, 5 chambers, style short, stigma 5-lobed. Fruit shaft and peel thick, often densely puberulent; Berry-shaped drupes subglobose, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, densely packed, black, ripe, with 5~6 seeds inside. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from October to November.

 Phellodendron chinense Schneid.:leaves and fruits Characters of herbs: The dried bark or cortex is commonly known as "Chuan Huang Bo", It is lamellar or shallow groove with different length and width and thickness of 3~6 mm. The outer surface is yellowish-brown, flat or longitudinally grooved, some of which show holes and residual grayish-brown rough skin. The inner surface is dark yellow or light brown, with fine longitudinal rib. The body is light, hard, and fibrous in the section. Smells is mild, bitter taste, sticky chewing.

 Ecological environment: The Phellodendron chinense Schneid., grows in the woods. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area, the Zhujiang river area, the area of the Yangtze River. This species is also cultivated in China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers cool climate, strong wind resistance, afraid of drought and waterlogging. Slightly shade-tolerant seedlings, adult trees like sunshine, cold tolerance. Young trees are vulnerable to freezing. It is advisable to select the slightly acidic or neutral loam with deep, loose and fertile upper layer and rich humus.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-pathogenic microorganisms: water decoction of Cortex Phellodendri or alcohol infusion in vitro has different level inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus citreus, hemolytic streptococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, Bacterium diphtheriae, bacillus subtilis, e. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, typhoid and paratyphoid, meningococcal and vibrio cholerae. ②.Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and drying dampness, discharge fire and detoxify. It is indicated for dampness-heat dysentery, diarrhea, jaundice, nocturnal emission, stranguria with turbid discharge, morbid leukorrhea, bone steaming and consumptive fever, sores of mouth and tongue, red eyes swollen and painful, carbuncle ulcer sore poison, skin eczem, etc.

 Administration of Cortex Phellodendri(Huánɡ Bò): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Phellodendri(Huánɡ Bò)
TCM Books: Internally:3~12 grams;Externally:proper amount(CP), Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:grinded into powder apply stick or soaking infusing with water decoction(DCTM), Internally:water decoction, 3~9 grams, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, grinded to powder and apply stick, or embathe with water decoction.(CHMM).

(2).Phellodendron amurense Rupr.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:leaves and flowers Botanical description: The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Phellodendron Rupr. Genus, it is commonly known as "Phellodendron amurense" or "Huáng Bò". Deciduous leaf arbor, height 10~25 meters. Bark thick, the out skin is grey-brown color, cork developed irregular reticular longitudinal fissure, inner skin fresh yellow. Small branches color grey-brown or maple(light brown), scarcely red-brown, have small lenticels. Odd pinnate compound leaves opposite, petiole short, 5~15 leaflets, aciculiform or oval oblong, length 3~11 cm, width 1.5~4 cm. Apex long and taper, Leaf base inequality cuneate or near-circular, fine blunt teeth spread at leaf edge, the teeth have glandular points, upper surface dark green and hairless, back surface grey-white, the base of middle vein covered soft hair, thin paper quality.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:big tree Dioecious, inflorescences paniculata, rachis and branches hairy when young; Flowers small, yellowish-green; 5 male stamens, exserted petals, filaments hairy at base; The vestigial stamens of female flowers are scaly; 1 pistil, ovary short stalks, 5 chambers, short branches, stigma 5-lobed. Berry-shaped drupes are spherical, 8~10 mm in diameter, densely packed, purple-black when ripe, with 2~5 seeds inside. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from September to October.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:trunk with a scar Characters of herbs: The dried bark or cortex is commonly known as "Guan Huang Bo", the bark is lamellar, slightly curved, varying in length and width, 1~7 mm thick. The outer surface is yellowish-green or yellowish-brown, smooth, and the residual emboli are brown or grayish-white with a slight elasticity. The inner surface is dark yellow or yellowish-brown with a fine longitudinal texture. The body is light, hard and brittle, the section is greenish-yellow or yellowish, the cortical part is granular, and the phloem part is fibrous, showing schist stratification. Smells mild, bitter taste, sticky chewing.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:small tree Ecological environment: The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., grows in mountain grove or valley stream, mountain forests, or along mountain valleys. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north, also distributes to northern Anhui, Henan, Ningxia, it also distributes in Central Asia.

 The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., is adaptable, sunny and cold-resistant, suitable for planting on flat or low hill slopes, roadside, residential side and near rivers.

 The herb Chuan huangbo is tabular or shallowly channeled, varying in length and width, 3~6 mm thick. Outer surface yellowish-brown, even or longitudinally furrowed, some showing scars of lenticels, and remains of greyish-brown coarse bark, inner surface dark yellow or pale brown, with fine longitudinal ridges. Texture light and hard, fracture fibrous, showing lobelike layers, dark yellow. Odor is slight, taste very bitter, viscous on chewing.

 The herb Guan Huang Bo is 2~4 mm thick. The outer surface is yellowish-green or pale brownish-yellow, relatively even, with irregular longitudinal fissures, scars of lenticels is small and infrequently visible, occasionally remaining greyish-white coarse bark. The inner surface is yellow or yellowish-brown. Texture is light and relatively hard. Fracture is bright yellow or yellowish-green.
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  • 1.Introduction of Huang Bo:Amur Cork-tree or Cortex Phellodendri.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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