Introduction of Huang Bo:Amur Cork-tree or Cortex Phellodendri.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Amur Cork-tree bark, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source two plant species, ①.Phellodendron chinense Schneid., ②.Phellodendron amurense Rupr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plant species, the features of the herb Amur Cork-tree bark, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Cortex Phellodendri(Amur Cork-tree).

Amur Cork-tree:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Bò.
 English Name: Amur Cork-tree.
 Latin Name: Cortex Phellodendri.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Cortex Phellodendri is the dried bark of Chinese corktree, Phellodendron chinense Schneid. Or Amur Corktree, Phellodendron amurense Rupr.(Phellodendron Rupr genus, family Rutaceae, Rutales order), used (1).to clear heat and dry dampness in cases of acute dysentery, jaundice, morbid leukorrhea, and heat stranguria, (2).to purge fire and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores and ulcers, and (3).to relieve fever in cases of Yin deficiency with night sweats. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Phellodendri, Amur Cork-tree, Huánɡ Bò.

 Botanical source: Common herbal classics defined the herb Cortex Phellodendri(Huang Bo) as the dry cortex or tree bark of the Rutaceae family plant species (1). Phellodendron chinense Schneid., or (2). Phellodendron amurense Rupr. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).Phellodendron chinense Schneid.

 Phellodendron chinense Schneid.:tree Botanical description: The Phellodendron chinense Schneid., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Phellodendron Rupr. Genus, it is commonly known as "Phellodendron chinense", or "Huáng Pí Shù". Deciduous trees, 10~12 meters tall. Bark brown appearance, visible lip-shaped leather hole, thin outer cork. Odd pinnate compound leaves opposite; 7~15 Lobules, oblong-lanceolate to oblong-ovate, 9~15 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, apex long acuminate, base-wide wedge or circular, asymmetrical, nearly entire, rust-colored pubescence on upper-middle veins, rust-colored long pubescence below dense, leaflet thick papery below. Flowers unisexual, dioecious; Inflorescence terminal conical, rachis densely puberulent. Flowers purple; Male flowers have 5~6 stamens, longer than petals, degenerate pistil diamond-shaped; Female flowers have 5~6 degenerated stamens, ovary upper, short stalks, 5 chambers, style short, stigma 5-lobed. Fruit shaft and peel thick, often densely puberulent; Berry-shaped drupes subglobose, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, densely packed, black, ripe, with 5~6 seeds inside. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from October to November.

 Phellodendron chinense Schneid.:leaves and fruits Ecological environment: The Phellodendron chinense Schneid., grows in the woods. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area, the Zhujiang river area, the area of the Yangtze River. This species is also cultivated in China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers cool climate, strong wind resistance, afraid of drought and waterlogging. Slightly shade-tolerant seedlings, adult trees like sunshine, cold tolerance. Young trees are vulnerable to freezing. It is advisable to select the slightly acidic or neutral loam with deep, loose and fertile upper layer and rich humus.

 Characters of herbs: The dried bark or cortex of Phellodendron chinense is commonly known as "Chuan Huang Bo", the bark is shallow groove-shaped or plate-shaped, slightly curved, with different length and width, 1~6 mm thick, flat, with longitudinal furrows on the outer surface, and the remaining cork bark is about 0.2 mm thick, grayish brown, inelastic, with lip-shaped transverse lenticels, the inner surface is dark yellow or light brown, with fine longitudinal ridges. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard, the cortex of the fracture surface is slightly granular, fibrous in phloem, split and layered, bright yellow. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes extremely bitter taste, sticky when chewed. The herb which has thick cortex and yellow fracture surface is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-pathogenic microorganisms: water decoction of Cortex Phellodendri or alcohol infusion in vitro has different level inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus citreus, hemolytic streptococcus, streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, Bacterium diphtheriae, bacillus subtilis, e. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, typhoid and paratyphoid, meningococcal and vibrio cholerae. ②.Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and drying dampness, discharge fire and detoxify. It is indicated for dampness-heat dysentery, diarrhea, jaundice, nocturnal emission, stranguria with turbid discharge, morbid leukorrhea, bone steaming and consumptive fever, sores of mouth and tongue, red eyes swollen and painful, carbuncle ulcer sore poison, skin eczem, etc.

 Administration of Cortex Phellodendri(Huánɡ Bò): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Cortex Phellodendri(Huánɡ Bò)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~12 grams;Externally:proper amount;②.Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:prepare to ground herb powder apply stick or soaking infusing with water decoction;③.Internally:water decoction, 3~9 grams, or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, prepare to ground herb powder and apply stick, or embathe with water decoction.

(2).Phellodendron amurense Rupr.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:leaves and flowers Botanical description: The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Phellodendron Rupr. Genus, it is commonly known as "Phellodendron amurense" or "Huáng Bò". Deciduous leaf arbor, height 10~25 meters. Bark thick, the out skin is grey-brown color, cork developed irregular reticular longitudinal fissure, inner skin fresh yellow. Small branches color grey-brown or maple(light brown), scarcely red-brown, have small lenticels. Odd pinnate compound leaves opposite, petiole short, 5~15 leaflets, aciculiform or oval oblong, length 3~11 cm, width 1.5~4 cm. Apex long and taper, Leaf base inequality cuneate or near-circular, fine blunt teeth spread at leaf edge, the teeth have glandular points, upper surface is dark green and hairless, undersurface is grey-white, the base of middle vein covered soft hair, thin paper quality.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:big tree Dioecious, inflorescences paniculata, rachis and branches hairy when young; Flowers small, yellowish-green; 5 male stamens, exserted petals, filaments hairy at base; The vestigial stamens of female flowers are scaly; 1 pistil, ovary short stalks, 5 chambers, short branches, stigma 5-lobed. Berry-shaped drupes are spherical, 8~10 mm in diameter, densely packed, purple-black when ripe, with 2~5 seeds inside. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from September to October.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:trunk with a scar Characters of herbs: The dried bark or cortex of Phellodendron amurense is commonly known as "Guan Huang Bo", the bark is plate-shaped, slightly curved, with different length and width, 1~7 mm thick. The outer surface is yellowish green or light yellowish brown, smooth, and the residual cork bark is brown or grayish white, slightly elastic. The inner surface is dark yellow or light yellow-brown, with fine vertical texture. The herb is light, the texture of the herb is hard and brittle, the fracture surface is green or light yellow, granular in cortex, the phloem is fibrous, split and layered. The herb has a slight smell, it tastes extremely bitter, sticky when chewed.

 Phellodendron amurense Rupr.:small tree Ecological environment: The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., grows in mountain grove or valley stream, mountain forests, or along mountain valleys. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the north, also distributes to northern Anhui, Henan, Ningxia, it also distributes in Central Asia.

 The Phellodendron amurense Rupr., is adaptable, sunny and cold-resistant, suitable for planting on flat or low hill slopes, roadside, residential side and near rivers.

 The herb Chuan huangbo is tabular or shallowly channeled, varying in length and width, 3~6 mm thick. Outer surface yellowish-brown, even or longitudinally furrowed, some showing scars of lenticels, and remains of greyish-brown coarse bark, inner surface dark yellow or pale brown, with fine longitudinal ridges. Texture light and hard, fracture fibrous, showing lobelike layers, dark yellow. Odor is slight, taste very bitter, viscous on chewing.

 The herb Guan Huang Bo is 2~4 mm thick. The outer surface is yellowish-green or pale brownish-yellow, relatively even, with irregular longitudinal fissures, scars of lenticels is small and infrequently visible, occasionally remaining greyish-white coarse bark. The inner surface is yellow or yellowish-brown. Texture is light and relatively hard. Fracture is bright yellow or yellowish-green.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.
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