Introduction of Huang Qin:Baical Skullcap Root or Radix Scutellariae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Baical Skullcap Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its officially defined botanical source one plant species, ①.Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., other three usable plant species, ②.Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt., ③.Scutellaria viscidula Bunge., ④.Scutellaria likiangensis Diels., one plant species which is used in North America and Europe, ⑤.Scutellaria lateriflora., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these five plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these five plant species, the features of the herb Baical Skullcap Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Scutellariae(Baical Skullcap Root).

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi:flowers Pin Yin Name: Huánɡ Qín.
 English Name: Baical Skullcap Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Scutellariae.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Radix Scutellariae is the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi(family Labiatae), used (1).to clear heat and dry dampness for treating damp-warm and damp-heat diseases, (2).to clear the lung of heat for relieving cough in cases of lung heat, (3).to purge fire and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, painful swelling of the throat, (4).to cool blood for arresting hematemesis, epistaxis, abnormal uterine bleeding, and (5).to prevent miscarriage in cases of threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Radix Scutellariae, Baical Skullcap Root, Huánɡ Qín.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Scutellariae is the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., it is a plant of the Scutellaria(skullcaps) genus, the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family of the Lamiales order.

 Common official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Scutellariae(Huang Qin) as the dry root of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family plant species (1). Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Baical Skullcap Root(Huang Qin) as the root of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family plant species (1). Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., or (2). Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt., or (3). Scutellaria viscidula Bunge., or (4). Scutellaria likiangensis Diels. The species (5). Scutellaria lateriflora is used in North America and Europe. These 4 commonly used species in TCM and 1 other species are introduced as:

(1).Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi:drawing of plant and herb Botanical description: The Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Scutellaria L. genus, it is commonly known as "Baikal skullcap", "Huang Qin", perennial herb, roots hypertrophy, fleshy, up to 2 cm in diameter, spreading and branching. Stems at base, ascending, ascending, 30~120 cm, base 2.5~3 mm, obtusely 4-angled, striate, subglabrous or puberulent to puberulent, green or purplish, multilobed from base branch.

 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi:flowering plant Leaf sharp and papper like, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5~4.5 cm long, 0.5~1.2 cm wide, blunt at tip, rounded at base, full margin, dark green above, glabrous or sparsely adnate to development Puberulent, paler below, glabrous or sparsely puberulent along midrib, densely depressed glandular, lateral veins 4 pairs, subepitose below with midvein above convex; petiole short, 2 mm long, ventral concave back convex, puberulous.

 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi:flowering plants Inflorescence on the stem and branches terminal, racemose, 7~15 cm long, often in the top of the stem again gathered into a panicle; pedicel length 3 mm, and the order axis were puberulent; sepals lower part like leaves, upper part Far smaller, oval-shaped lanceolate to lanceolate, 4~11 mm long, nearly glabrous. The calyx blossoms are 4 mm long, the scutellum is 1.5 mm tall, and the outer part is densely puberulous, the margins are softly hairy, and the inside is glabrous. The calyx is 5 mm long and has a 4 mm high scutellum. Corolla violet, purple to blue, 2.3~ 3 cm long, densely glandular pubescent outside, pubescent inside saccate; coronal tube prominently basally geniculate, middle diameter 1.5 mm, to throat width up to 6 mm; crowns 2 lip-shaped, upper lip helmet-shaped, apex emarginate, lower lip middle lobe triangular-ovate, 7.5 mm wide, both lobes close together. 4 stamens, slightly exserted, anteriorly longer, semi-medicine-like, degraded half-medium unobvious, posteriorly shorter, all-medicine, pith-pitched with white mane hair, abaxially vesicular hairy; filaments flattened, below middle pairs on the medial posterior surface are finely pilose on both sides. Style slender, apex acute, microfissure. The disk is ring-shaped, 0.75 mm high, slightly enlarged in front, and extends into a short ovary handle. Ovary brown, glabrous.

 Nutlets ovoid, 1.5 mm tall, 1 mm in diameter, dark brown, tuberculate, ventral surface nearly basally with hilum. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi:growing plants Ecological environment: The Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., grows in sunny slopes and restless lands, at the area with an altitude of 60~1,300 (1,700~2,000) meters above sea level, wild in places with sunny spots such as peaks, slopes, forest margins, and roadsides. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes wildly in the north, Chengde of Hebei, and mainly cultivated in northwest provinces Gansu, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and other areas of China.

 The Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi., likes warm, cold-resistant, the underground parts of adult plants can still safely in winter at -35 °C low temperature, does not die in 35 °C high temperature, but can not withstand continuous high temperature above 40 °C weather. Fear of drought and watering, too much water or rain in the ground, poor growth, severe root dead. Poorly drained land should not be planted. The soil better be loamy and sandy and the pH is neutral and slightly alkaline. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and cool climate, cold resistance, drought resistance, barren resistance, adult plant underground part can endure -30℃ low temperature. It is advisable to cultivate in neutral or slightly alkaline loam or sandy loam with abundant sunlight and deep soil layer. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Baical Skullcap Root:herb photo Characters of herbs: The herb is conical and twisted, with a length of 5~25 cm and a diameter of 1~3 cm. The surface is brownish yellow or dark yellow, with sparse verrucous fine root marks, the upper part is rough, twisted longitudinal wrinkles or irregular reticulated patterns, smooth and fine wrinkles at the lower part. The texture of the herb is hard and brittle, easily broken, the fracture surface is yellow, and reddish-brown in center; The center of the old root is withered or hollow, dark brown or black brown, the root dark brown or hollow in center is called "Ku Qin(withered skullcap root)". The herb has a slight smell, it tastes bitter. The herb which has long strips, the texture is solid and firm, yellow, is better.

 Cultivars are slender and have many branches. The surface is light yellow-brown, the cortex is tight, and the longitudinal wrinkles are smooth and fine. The fracture surface is yellow or light yellow, slightly horny, the herb tastes lightly bitter. The herb which has long strips, the texture is solid and firm, yellow, is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.an inhibitory effect on dysentery bacillus, diphtheria bacillus, pyomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and so on; ②.effective for laryngeal spray, meningitis carrier; Even Staphylococcus aureus, which has developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, is sensitive to Scutellaria baicalensis; ③.anti-inflammatory; ④.anti-allergic; ⑤.antipyretic; ⑥.anti-platelet aggregation and anticoagulation; ⑦.lowering blood lipid; ⑧.protecting the liver; ⑨.protect gallbladder; ⑩.anti-oxidation; ⑾.anti-cancer; ⑿.diuretic effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clearing heat and drying dampness, clearing heat and reducing fire, reducing fire and detoxification, hemostasis, miscarriage prevention. It is used for the damp-warm syndrome, heat warm chest tightness nausea, dampness and heat, puffiness, dysentery, jaundice, lung heat and cough, high fever and polydipsia, thirst, fever, dizziness, liver fire and headache, red eyes swelling and pain, dampness and heat, jaundice, dysentery, pyretic stranguria, blood heat and epistaxis, bleeding and leakage, carbuncle and swelling, carbuncle ulcer and sore poison, threatened abortion.

 Administration of Radix Scutellariae(Huánɡ Qín): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Scutellariae(Huánɡ Qín)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams;②.Internally:water decoction, 1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:wash with water decoction, or grinded into powder and apply;③.Internally:water decoction,3~9 grams, prepared to pill, powder;Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction, or grinded into powder and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Radix Scutellariae should not be combined with seed of welsh-onion, Cinnabar, Tree Peony Bark, Black False Hellebore.

(2).Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt.

 Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Scutellaria L. genus, it is commonly known as "Scutellaria amoena", "Dian Huang Qin", perennial herbs; rhizomes nearly vertical or oblique, hypertrophic, with a diameter of 11 mm or more, often branched on upper part, with 1~2 stems on upper branches and often bifurcated on lower part.

 Stems erect, 12~26 cm tall, sharply 4-angled, slightly 4-troughed, angularly angled or submerged, puberulent to nearly pubescent, unbranched or branched, often with purple, middle section The length is 1.2~2 cm. Leafy grassy, ​​oblong-ovate or oblong, the lower part of the stem becomes smaller, above the middle of the stem, is 1.4~3.3 cm long, 0.7~1.4 cm wide, often folded, rounded or blunt at the top, round or base Wedge-shaped to shallow heart-shaped, edge from above the base is not obvious round teeth to the whole edge, above the green lighter, above the sparsely puberulent to a few glabrous, below often along the midrib and lateral veins sparsely puberulous or few glabrous, lateral veins 3~4 pairs, bulging below midvein above depression; petiole 1~2 mm long, abaxial convex, puberulent.

 Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt.:drawing of plant and flower Flowers opposite, arranged in terminal racemes growing 5~14 cm; pedicels 3~4 mm, pubescent with glands puberulent; bracts narrowing upward, lanceolate oblong, 5~10 mm, apex acute to obtuse, base cuneate, puberulent. Calyx blossoms about 3 mm long, often purplish, glandular puberulous, fruiting up to 5 mm, scutellum when flowering about 1 mm tall, when fruit increases, up to 3 mm. Corolla purple or bluish-purple, 2.4~3 cm long, glandular puberulent outside, glabrous inside; crown tube in front of base proximal microcapsules large, apparent geniculate, middle approximately 2.5 mm wide, gradually widening towards throat department 7 mm wide; crowns 2 lip, upper lip helmet-like, concave, apex emarginate, lower lobes' subsegment suborbicular, subentire, as wide as 1 cm, bilateral lobes triangular, ca. 3 mm wide. 4 stamens, 2 strong; filaments flattened, lower ciliate. Disk hypertrophy, bulge in front; ovary handle short. Style slender. Ovary smooth.

 Scutellaria amoena G.H.Wrignt.:flower Ripe nutlets ovoid, 1.25 mm long, 1 mm wide, black, tuberculate, ventral near base with a hilum. Flowering from May to September, fruiting period from July to October.

 Ecological environment: The Scutellaria amoena G.H. Wrignt., grows in the Yunnan pine forest and shrubland at an altitude of 1,300~3,200 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in southwest areas, Yunnan, south of Sichuan, and northwest of Guizhou, China.

 Characters of herbs: The rhizome of Scutellaria amoena is transverse or oblique, with a thickness of more than 1 cm. The roots are conical irregular strips, often branched, 5~20 cm long and 1~1.6 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish brown or brownish yellow, typically with rough cork bark and wrinkles. There are branch root marks at the lower end, and the fracture surface is fibrous, bright yellow or slightly green.

(3).Scutellaria viscidula Bunge.

 Scutellaria viscidula Bunge.:flower Botanical description: The Scutellaria viscidula Bunge., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Scutellaria L. genus, it is commonly known as "Scutellaria viscidula Bunge", "Nian Mao Huang Qin", perennial herb, up to 10~25 cm high. Roots thick, straight or oblique, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, dark brown skin. Stems erect or obliquely ascending, many branched, 4-angled, densely pubescent and glandular pubescent. Leaves opposite, lanceolate. Bars lanceolate or strip-shaped, 1.5~3.5 cm long, 3~8 mm wide, apex acuminate or obtuse, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, entire, sparsely pubescent or nearly pubescent above Hairless; densely pilose below, yellow glands on both sides, petiole very short or nearly sessile.

 Inflorescences terminal, racemes; calyx bell-shaped, 2-lipped, entire, 3~4 mm long, scutellum on upper lobes ca. 1 mm tall, densely glandular hairs outside; corolla yellowish, long l.8~2.2 cm, outside by glandular hairs, apparently geniculate at base near crown, enlarged to throat, 2-lipped, upper lip helmet-shaped, apex emarginate, lower lip 3-lobed, middle lobe broad, subrounded, Lateral lobes ovoid; 4 stamens, anterior to longer, extending corolla, filaments flattened, apically crypts densely white bristles: styles apex acute, micro cracked.

 Nutlets ovoid, black, tuberculate. It is flowering from June to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Ecological environment: The Scutellaria viscidula Bunge., grows in gravel, farmland, abandoned land, and roadsides, often clustered into clumps. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in mountains of the North China plain area, Shanxi, Hebei, in mountain areas of Southern Xing'an, Northern Yanshan, Yinshan, etc.

 Characters of herbs: The root of Scutellaria viscidula is slender and long, conical or cylindrical, with a length of 7~15 cm and a diameter of 0.5~1.5 cm. The surface is similar to Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, rarely hollow or decayed in the center.

(4).Scutellaria likiangensis Diels.

 Scutellaria likiangensis Diels.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Scutellaria likiangensis Diels., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Scutellaria L. genus, it is commonly known as "Scutellaria likiangensis Diels", "Li Jiang Huang Qin", perennial herb; roots hypertrophy, diameter of about 2~12 mm, yellow cut surface, often bifurcation. The stems are 20~36 cm in height. Most stems are produced from the top of the rhizomes, erect, 4-angled, and are turned to small pilose, not branched. Ye Jian papery, oblong or elliptic, the lower part of the stem is small, the middle is 2.5~3.5 cm long, 1~1.5 cm wide, the tip is rounded, the base is round or wide wedge-shaped, most of the edges are in or above the middle There are very inconspicuous dentate serrations or near to full margins, with closely-arranged or subglabrous hairs above, abaxially densely pitted glands, sparsely pubescent along midrib and lateral veins, and 4 pairs of lateral veins; Petiole length 0~1.5 mm.

 Racemes terminal, 4~12 cm long, flowers opposite, stems 2~3 mm long, densely glandular pilose with flat axes, bracts elliptic to lanceolate, lower ones leaflike, upward Smaller, glands pilose on both sides. Calyx 3 mm long, external glandular pilose, often with purple, scutellum semi-circular, 1.5 mm high, erected when the fruit, reflexed. Corolla yellow, sometimes yellow-white or yellow-green, often stained purple spots and stripes, large, long 2.6~3 cm, outer glands glandular pilosulous; coronal ridge near the base of a few straight angle, throat width of about 6 Mm. The upper lip of the palate is shaped like a helmet. The lobes of the lower lip are nearly circular and the lateral lobes are oval. The lower part of the filaments are small cilia. Disk hypertrophy, bulge in front, ovary handle short, ovary smooth.

 Ripe nutlets oval, dark brown, tuberculate. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from August to September.

 Ecological environment: The Scutellaria likiangensis Diels., grows in sparse forests, shrubs, or grass slopes at an altitude of 2,500~3,100 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributes in the southwest area, north-western area of Yunnan Province, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The root of Scutellaria likiangensis is cylindrical with branches, 8~20 cm in length and 0.2~0.5 cm in diameter. The surface is yellow-brown, the fracture surface is yellow, the middle of the old root is dark brown and withered.

(5).Scutellaria lateriflora.

 Scutellaria lateriflora.:flowering plant Botanical description: The Scutellaria lateriflora., is a plant of the Labiatae(Lamiaceae) family and Scutellaria L. genus, it is commonly known as "Scutellaria lateriflora", or "Scutellaria laterifolia", also known in many other names "Blue Pimpernel, Helmetflower, Helmet Flower, Hoodwort, Mad-Dog Weed, Madweed, Quaker Bonnet, skullcap, Side-Flowering Scullcap, Virginia skullcap, Virginian Scullcap.".

 Scutellaria lateriflora.:flowering plant The stems are light green to pale reddish-green, 4-angled, and hairless or sparsely canescent; they have a tendency to sprawl. The blades of the opposite leaves are up to 3" long and 2" across; they are cordate-ovate to broadly lanceolate, hairless, and coarsely serrated along the margins. On the upper surface of each leaf blade, there is a conspicuous network of veins. The petioles of the leaves are light green to pale reddish green, slender, and up to 1" long. Both terminal and axillary racemes of flowers are produced by the upper stems. Each slender raceme is up to 6" long, consisting of about 6-7 pairs of flowers; the axillary racemes spread outward from their stems. Underneath each flower, there is a short leafy bract.

 Scutellaria lateriflora.:flowering plant This capsule consists of 2 lobes that are joined at the base, but spread slightly apart from each other at their tips; these lobes are somewhat flattened and round along their margins. The root system consists of a taproot and either rhizomes or stolons. Small colonies of plants are often produced from the rhizomes or stolons.

 Its flowering period is from June to September.

 Ecological environment: The Scutellaria likiangensis Diels., grows in "moist sedge meadows, openings in floodplain woodlands, soggy thickets, swamps, bogs, seeps and springs, edges of vernal pools and ponds, moist depressions in limestone glades, and shaded areas of cliffs." Geographical distribution: This species was native to North America.
Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.
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