Introduction of Ya Dan Zi:Java Brucea Fruit or Fructus Bruceae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Java Brucea Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Java Brucea Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Bruceae(Java Brucea Fruit).

Java Brucea Fruit Pin Yin Name: Yā Dǎn Zi.
 English Name: Java Brucea Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Bruceae.
 Property and flavor: bitter, cold, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Bruceae is the dried ripe fruit of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., used for treating amebic dysentery and malaria, also used externally for warts, clavus, and trichomonas vaginitis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Bruceae, Java Brucea Fruit, Yā Dǎn Zi.

 Java Brucea Fruit:herb photo Botanical source: Herbal classic book and official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Bruceae(Java Brucea Fruit) as dried ripe fruit of the plant species (1).Brucea javanica (L.)Merr. It is a plant of the Brucea J.F. Mill. Genus, Simaroubaceae DC. family (Simaroubaceae family), Sapindales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Brucea javanica (L.)Merr.

 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:fruits growing on branches Botanical description: Brucea javanica (L.)Merr. is also known Rhus javanica L, it is commonly known as Yā Dǎn Zi. The herb is commonly known as Java Brucea Fruit, Fruit of Java Brucea. Evergreen shrubs or small trees, grow up to 1.5~3 meters or up to 8 meters tall, and the whole tree is covered with yellow fluff. Branchlets have yellow-white lenticels. Pinnately compound leaves of odd number are alternate, 20~40 cm long; 5~11 leaflets (lobule or foliole), usually 7, opposite, ovate-lanceolate, 4~11 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is broadly cuneate, oblique, margin with triangular coarse teeth, the upper surface is sparsely covered, the under surface is densely covered with appressed pilose, particularly dense on veins.

 Cymose panicle is axillary, long and narrow, up to 50 cm; male inflorescence is longer than the leaf, 4 sepals, oval (egg-shaped), less than 1 mm long, outside is covered with primrose yellow (pale yellow) hard appressed hair, the margin is sparsely glandular, 4 petals, oblong-lanceolate, outside has hirsute, the margin is glandular, 4 stamens, the floral disc is developed, semiglobe (semi-spherical); Female inflorescences are shorter than leaves, sepals and petals are same as male flowers but slightly larger, stamens with sterile anthers, the floral disc is cup-shaped, 4-lobed, usually 4 carpels, ovoid, glabrous, style is reflexed, appressed to the ovary.

 Drupe is elliptic, prunosus (violet red) and turning black, about 8 mm long, 5~6 mm wide, with raised reticular wrinkles when dry, slightly oblique. Its flowering period is from April to June, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:green fruits and ripe fruits Ecological environment: The plant grows in open forests on lime mountain at altitudes of 950~1,000 meters above sea level. Resources distribution: The plant is mainly distributed in the Zhujiang river area, Hainan, Taiwan, southwest China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: Brucea javanica prefers a warm and humid climate, not tolerant to cold, but tolerant of drought, and barren. It is advisable to choose sunny, loose and fertile, rich humus sandy soil for cultivation. Young trees can be intercropped with vegetables, soybeans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and other crops, and can also be intercropped with areca, as a shade tree for young areca trees.

 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: The drupe is oval (egg-shaped) or elliptic, slightly flat, 0.6~1 cm long, and 4~7 mm in diameter. The surface is black, with raised reticulated wrinkles, the tip has beak-shaped mucronate style residue, and obvious ridge lines on both sides of the abdomen and back, the base is blunt, with pit-shape fruit stalk marks, and the pulp is easy to peel off. The fruit kernel is hard, the inner surface is taupe brown(grayish brown) and smooth after being broken, and it contains one seed. The seed is oval (egg-shaped), 4~7 mm long, and 3~5 mm in diameter, the surface is milky white or yellowish white, slightly raised reticulated pattern, a short tip at the top is beaked, oblong hilum under it, brown round chalaza grows near the base, and slightly raised seed ridge between hilum and chalazal, the seed coat is thin, and the endosperm and embryo are oily. The herb has a special smell and an extremely bitter taste. The herb of better grade has large, full grains, and white kernels with sufficient oil.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-parasitic effect; ②.Anti-tumor effect; ③.Anti-leukemia effect; ④.Anti-tumor effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, insecticide, stanch malaria, relieve dysentery, corrode wart. It is indicated for dysentery, heat toxic blood dysentery, malaria, cold dysentery, rest dysentery, hemorrhoids, carbuncle and swelling, itching of genital region, leucorrhea, externally treatment of wart, helosis.

 Administration of Fructus Bruceae (Yā Dǎn Zi): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Bruceae (Yā Dǎn Zi)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:0.5~2 grams, wrapped with longan aril or capsule and take it, Externally: proper amount; ②.Internally: wrapped with longan aril or capsule and take it after a meal, 5~20 granules each time, 3 times daily. Externally:mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally: peel off the shell and take the kernel, wrapped with longan aril or capsule, swallow, 10~15 granules for malaria, 10~30 granules for dysentery. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or prepare to ointment and smear, or wash with water decoction.
 Contraindications, Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Fructus Bruceae should be used cautiously for pregnant woman and infant.

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