Introduction of Ya Dan Zi:Java Brucea Fruit or Fructus Bruceae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness.

 TCM Herbs Icon05 Introduction: Herbs Clearing Heat and Drying Dampness: an agent or substance bitter in taste and cold in property that is effective for eliminating heat and dampness, usually used in the treatment of diseases caused by damp-heat, such as acute jaundice, acute dysentery, urinary infection, eczema, boils and abscesses.

 
Fructus Bruceae(Java Brucea Fruit).

Java Brucea Fruit Pin Yin Name: Yā Dǎn Zi.
 English Name: Java Brucea Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Bruceae.
 Property and flavor: bitter, cold, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Fructus Bruceae is the dried ripe fruit of Brucea javanica(L.)Merr.(family Simurubaceae), used for treating amebic dysentery and malaria, also used externally for warts, clavus, and trichomonas vaginitis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Bruceae, Java Brucea Fruit, Yā Dǎn Zi.

 Java Brucea Fruit:herb photo Botanical source: Common herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Bruceae(Java Brucea Fruit) as dried ripe fruit of the plant species (1).Brucea javanica (L.)Merr. It is a plant of the Brucea J.F. Mill. Genus, Simaroubaceae DC. family, Sapindales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Brucea javanica (L.)Merr.


 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:fruits growing on branches Botanical description: It is commonly known as Yā Dǎn Zi. The herb is commonly known as Java Brucea Fruit, Fruit of Java Brucea. Evergreen shrubs or small trees, 1.5~3~8 meters tall, golden plants covered with yellow fluff. Branchlets have yellow-white lenticels. Odd pinnate compound leaves alternate, 20~40 cm long; 5~11 leaflets, usually 7, opposite, ovate-lanceolate, 4~11 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base broadly cuneate, oblique, margin with triangular coarsely serrate, upper sparsely covered, below mipilose, veins especially dense. Cymose paniculate axillary, elongate, to 50 cm; Male inflorescence longer than leaf, 4 sepals, ovate, less than 1 mm long, outer flowered with yellowish stiffly covered hairs, margin sparsely glandular, 4 petals, oblong-lanceolate, outside hirsute, margin glandular, 4 stamens, disk developed, hemispherical; Female inflorescences shorter than leaves, sepals, petals identical to male flowers, but slightly larger, stamens with anthers not developed, disk cup-shaped, 4-lobed, carpels are usually 4, ovoid, glabrous, style reflexed, appressed to ovary. Drupe elliptic, purplish red to black, ca. 8 mm long, 5~6 mm wide, with raised reticular wrinkles when dry, slightly oblique. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from August to October.

 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:green fruits and ripe fruits Ecological environment: The plant grows in sparse lime mountain forests at altitudes of 950~1,000 meters above sea level. Resources distribution: The plant mainly distributes in the Zhujiang river area, Hainan, Taiwan, and southwest of China, and other areas.

 Growth characteristics: The Brucea javanica prefers a warm and humid climate, not cold, drought resistant, barren. It is advisable to choose sunny, loose, and fertile, rich humus sandy soil for cultivation. Young trees can be intercropped with vegetables, soybeans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and other crops, and can also be intercropped with areca, as a shade tree for young areca trees.

 Brucea javanica L.Merr.:fruiting tree Characters of herbs: Drupe ovate or elliptic, slightly oblate, 0.6~1 cm long, 4~7 mm in diameter, black on the surface, with a raised network wrinkles, the top with a short pointed beak style remnant, with more obvious edges on both sides of the abdomen and back, base blunt round, with a concave point like fruit stalk, flesh easy to peel off. The core of the fruit is hard, with a smooth gray-brown interior after breaking open, and contains 1 seed. Seeds are ovoid, 4~7 mm long, 3~5 mm in diameter, surface milky white or yellow-white, slightly raised reticulum, the tip of the short tip is like a beak, below the oblong umbilicus, near the base of the brown circular junction, the umbilicus and the junction between slightly raised ridge; Seed coat is thin, endosperm and embryo are oily. Slight smell and specific, taste extremely bitter. Those grain big, full, seed kernel white, oily sufficient is preferred.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-parasitic effect; ②.Anti-tumor effect; ③.Anti-leukemia effect; ④.Anti-tumor effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Clear heat and detoxify, insecticide, stanch malaria, relieve dysentery, corrode wart. It is indicated for dysentery, heat toxic blood dysentery, malaria, cold dysentery, rest dysentery, hemorrhoids, carbuncle and swelling, itching of genital region, leucorrhea, externally treatment of wart, helosis.

 Administration of Fructus Bruceae(Yā Dǎn Zi): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Bruceae(Yā Dǎn Zi)
TCM Books: Internally:0.5~2 grams, wrapped with longan aril or capsule and take it, Externally: proper amount(CP), Internally: wrapped with longan aril or capsule and take it after a meal,5~20 granules each time,3 times daily. Externally:mashed and apply stick(DCTM), Internally: peel off the shell and take the kernel, wrapped with longan aril or capsule, swallow, 10~15 granules for malaria, 10~30 granules for dysentery. Externally: proper amount, mashed and apply stick, or prepare to ointment and smear, or wash with water decoction(CHMM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Fructus Bruceae should be used cautiously for pregnant woman and infant.

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ya Dan Zi:Java Brucea Fruit or Fructus Bruceae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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